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ANT101H5 (475)

lecture 02

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Sherry Fukuzawa

Methods of Studying the PastJuly092011Finding Archaeological SitesSurveyto look for Isolated artifacts on the ground surface Changes in soilvegetation Geological formations caves lakes rivers Documents maps folklore Natural agents eg soil erosion By accident during another human activity eg widening of TransCanada HighwaySurvey A systematic nonintrusive investigation of a specified area for archaeological remainsWalking Survey Ploughed field and River bankAreal Survey Nazca Lines Peru spider line long white straight linesRoman town beneath Venentian orntield ex Outline of walls really important for finding arch sites Archaeological SiteAn area which contains the remains of human activityExHeadsmashedin Buffalo Jump Alberta kill and hunt site also cemetery dump sites rel SitesFossil LocalityAn area which containsfossilsExamples Zhoukoudian China Olduvai Gorge TanzaniaFinding fossil localities Good knowledge of geology Find conditions favourable for preservationsuch as volcanic ash limestoneProvenienceThe location of an artifact or feature within a siteProvenience is determined according toThe Law of Association objects found in the samearchaeological layer under conditions where its is clear that they were deposited at the same time must all date from the same timeThe Law of Superposition see below These are essential for reconstructing the pastData RecordingArchaeological Provenience Grid system datum point Scale map Stratigraphy of each grid square Description of artifacts and bones Photographs Scale drawingsGrid SystemA system for recording data from anarchaeological excavationwhere the site surface is divided into squaresSite Datum the starting or reference point forconstructing a grid
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