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ANT 101 - Jnuary 16th, 2013.doc

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Heather Miller

A Re-Cap on a Background in Biology Regulatory Genes – produce proteins for other genes. They influence other genes in the production of their own proteins. Mutation – A “change” in DNA (technically speaking). It’s either a change in the sequence of base or a change in the structure and number of chromosomes as well. Genes & Mutations are important because they are behind the production of proteins which are the at the core of functions behind an organism. Proteins influence communication systems in an organism and they affect the regulation of systems within an organism. **ALL somatic cells in all organism so to speak have the same genetic information. Regulatory Genes send information to particular parts of the DNA to do their job. II. CELL DIVISION: {MITOSIS & MEIOSIS} Question: how does cell division work? Answer: during cell divisions, chromosomes duplicate themselves. Before dna molecules separate from themselves. Chromosomes are organized. The 23 pair of chromosomes always determines sex. In humans – females will have 2 x chromosomes where a male will have 1 x and 1 y chromosome, Go back to what “chromosomes” are: basic cellular structures. They are DNA wrapped around protein in one aspect. They are ONLY found in cell nuclei. 2 Types of Cells: Somatic cells and Gametes cell Question: What is MITOSIS and MEIOSIS (these are replication processes for cells) Mitosis - is a type of cell division from Somatic Cells that results in two daught
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