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ANT 101 - Jnuary 23rd, 2013.doc

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Heather Miller

We left off on “Race” from the last lecture! Re-Cap: Race is not a fixed biological unit Discrete & something will be on the quiz Remember that the . Problems with Use of Race and the definition of Human Biological groupings are: 1. Controversy with SOCIAL associations 2. “Races” not fixed biological units 2. Continuous variation / polygenic traits 4. More variation within populations than between them 5. Modern Synthesis - focus on interaction --- {Human Variation and Biocultural Evolution} 2 types of Variation: 1. Variations in allele frequency (genotypic) within & between populations 2. Adaptive significance of genotypic and phenotypic variation Ex- why is there skin color variation? Polymorphism – many + forms // a genetic trait with more than 1 allele in an appreciable amount within a population. {Refer to page 80 to 81 **on the practical and midterm for sure} Hardy Weinberg equilibrium equation – used to predict what the allele frequency should be under IDEAL equations. Multivariate statistics – multiple traits that are looked at in one viewing. *** Variation within a population for humans is greater than variation between populations. *** ***DO NOT MIX UP POLYPHORMISM with more than 1 frequent allele in a population with POLYGENIC or monogenic. Responses to heat: We sweat when it gets hot. Cooling down is a form of acclimatization. A lot of body hair is an adaptation of heat. Sweating is a short term thing. When it is cold our metabolic rate increases Bergmann’s and Allens rules suggest that body heat are a High Altitude - the higher in altitude you go the higher in hemoglobin you produce but if you are born in a HIGH altitude environment – you are born with larger lungs. Genetics & Environment both physical and cultural*** Genotype - the genetic constitution of an individual organism. Phenotype – heavily influenced by observable genetics and by the environment which places a huge role in determining the final phenotype. This is true for monogenic traits ( both sickle cell and lactose cell have a cultural trait relevance) and for polygenic traits (height and even skin colo
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