Ant 101H5S CIVILIZATION March 16 , 2011
Neolithic village to 1st urban centers - cultural change:
• agricultural innovation- lead to the beginning of civilizations.
• diversification of labor- specialization in jobs
• centralized authority- city of Thebes- karnak west of nile- valley of the kings
• mesopotamia – now iraq
• social stratification Oi class system
• burial- class systems in cemetery, status of the individual led to the cemetery characteristics. Same in
ancient times- ex: in egypt pharaohs.
• size of dwellings
• written documents- all of early civilizations
• spoken and written language
• cumeniform clayt a blew with gilgamein written, earliest writing in india and pakistan
What defines a civilization?
• Cities- uprising of huge cities
• Social stratification- increase in social status
• State- government dictate rules and laws to be followed by everyone.
Theories of Civilizations Emergence
1. Hydraulic theory (Karl Wittfogel)
• Irrigation systems
• environmental instigator
• intensification of agriculture, indivduals who had control over irrigation systems gained status and
control over others.
• Water supply control for food resources
2. Trade networks
• around water transporting
• mesopotamia-tigers river meeting of two rivers
• key location for trade networks
• social stratification
3. Environmental & Social circumscription (Rob Carneiro)
• Social stratification due to competition for scarce resources
• beginning of religion which began in to cities
• important- priests and rulers in ideology became the higher class.
• Certain individuals came up with answers about life cycle
• human life cycle
gain access/closer relationships- power control over others.
5. Action (Marcus & Flannery)
• a few charismatic individuals in neolithic manipulate and control others to gain power and status.
early 5 civilizations
what make each one a civilization
what is unique 1. Mesopotamia
3. Indus Valley
5. Mesoamerica & Peru
• where low level food production began.
• Iraq & iran in mid east- fertile crescent-cradle of human civilization
• 6500 ya- beginnings of cities-changes in pottery-regional diversification
• more new villages, potter, trade=more population growth and diversity.
• Non residential buildings-transition from neolithic villages to cities.
• Became bigger and bigger until they became monuments.
• Why did they build them without a utelitarian function ?
• Monumental architecture-bonding binding hierarchy
• reinforce upper class, control of resources of highest classes
• reallocating resources
• put people to work with a purpose and function
• lowest-slaves to work the monuments to solidify the upper class power, control over population-people died