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Civilization March 16th.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Ant 101H5S CIVILIZATION March 16 , 2011 Neolithic village to 1st urban centers - cultural change: • agricultural innovation- lead to the beginning of civilizations. • diversification of labor- specialization in jobs • centralized authority- city of Thebes- karnak west of nile- valley of the kings • mesopotamia – now iraq • social stratification Oi class system Evidence: • burial- class systems in cemetery, status of the individual led to the cemetery characteristics. Same in ancient times- ex: in egypt pharaohs. • size of dwellings • written documents- all of early civilizations • laws • correspondence • spoken and written language • cumeniform clayt a blew with gilgamein written, earliest writing in india and pakistan What defines a civilization? • Cities- uprising of huge cities • Social stratification- increase in social status • State- government dictate rules and laws to be followed by everyone. Theories of Civilizations Emergence 1. Hydraulic theory (Karl Wittfogel) • Irrigation systems • environmental instigator • intensification of agriculture, indivduals who had control over irrigation systems gained status and control over others. • Water supply control for food resources 2. Trade networks • around water transporting • mesopotamia-tigers river meeting of two rivers • key location for trade networks • social stratification 3. Environmental & Social circumscription (Rob Carneiro) • Social stratification due to competition for scarce resources 4. Religion • beginning of religion which began in to cities • important- priests and rulers in ideology became the higher class. • Certain individuals came up with answers about life cycle • human life cycle gain access/closer relationships- power control over others. 5. Action (Marcus & Flannery) • a few charismatic individuals in neolithic manipulate and control others to gain power and status. Early States early 5 civilizations know !!! what make each one a civilization what is unique 1. Mesopotamia 2. Egypt • 3. Indus Valley 4. China 5. Mesoamerica & Peru SOUTHWEST ASIA (Greater Mesopotamia) • earliest • where low level food production began. • Iraq & iran in mid east- fertile crescent-cradle of human civilization • 6500 ya- beginnings of cities-changes in pottery-regional diversification • more new villages, potter, trade=more population growth and diversity. • Non residential buildings-transition from neolithic villages to cities. • Became bigger and bigger until they became monuments. • Why did they build them without a utelitarian function ? • Monumental architecture-bonding binding hierarchy • reinforce upper class, control of resources of highest classes • reallocating resources • put people to work with a purpose and function • lowest-slaves to work the monuments to solidify the upper class power, control over population-people died in them. • Mo
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