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Anthro lecture Jan 15th Part 2.pdf

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Sherry Fukuzawa

Anthro lecture Jan 15th Part 2 Human Diversity History of the study of human variation Linneaus 1758 – classificatory – separated humans into 5 categories – americanus (called red) – europaus (white, syrius, blonde hair, very smart (boosted them)) – asiaticus (yellow) – afer – monstrosus (large Patagonians, cone head of china, imaginary people) – evidence of bias and judgement is usually always present Count de Buffon – varieties of the human species 1749 – descriptive – rejected classifications – emphasized unity of species – behavioural and cultural biasses – tried to be more descriptive, denied idea of classifying humans into groups – important because he tried to reject classification – problem: still adhered to cultural biases Problems in classifying humans – humans are both the investigators and subjects – inequalities and injustices – Linneaus lead to typifying humans Eugenics – goal was for the betterment of the human species by the selective breeding for favourable traits (natural selection) – favourable traits > unfavourable traits – artificially encourage reproduction for favourable traits Important figures in Eugenics Francis Galton – 1869 “Heredity Genius" – suggested in writings that heredity through inheritance of traits, we could try and breed out the reproduction of undesirable traits – used biology to enforce cultural biases – said richer had better traits than poor, and poor had less desirable traits and that they should be discouraged from reproducing Charles Davenport – 1911 “Heredity in relation to eugenics” – established eugenics in US scientific program – US came up with policies to restrict immigration of unfavourable immigrant traits and allowed immigrants with more favourable traits – stated the american eugenics – said it could be “scientifically proven” How was eugenics to be carried out? – restriction of immigration – restriction of the propagation of undesirable heritable traits – encouragement of breeding between individuals with desirable genetic traits – eugenics took hold in national socialist Germany Ernest Hooton – broke from eugenics monument – deemed father of anthropology – polymorphism – a species with alterna
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