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Lecture 12

Lecture 12 Homo erectus.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Sherry Fukuzawa

TH February 26 2014 12 Lecture 12: Homo Erectus HOMO ERECTUS Significant of homo erectus... 1. 1st hominin species to exist outside of Africa/ throughout the whole world* 2. anstfrican origin 3. 1 throughout the olded world (Asia) 4. an impressive longevity/ one of the longest living(1.8 mya-270)/ doesn’t go extinct for awhile 5. Extensive geographical spread t/o Old World First Find: • Eugene Dubois, 1891, relatively earl • Trinil, Java • Femur • Called it: Pithecanthropus erectus JAVA SITES (1.8 mya – 500,000 ya) Zhoukoudian, China (600 – 400 kya) (homo erctus) • Gunnar Andersson • Pei Wenshong • Davidson Black • Franz Weinreich • Best collection of 600,000 – 300,000 yr old hominids ever found • Minimum 40 individuals – adult male, female & subadults • 1000cc aver  100,000 artifacts  bones gone East African Homo erectus (h.ergaster) • Nariokotome, West Turkana • 1984 Kamoya Kimeu • WT 15000 (Nariokotome boy) : significant because almost full body found • 1.6 mya • Boy approx. 12 y.o. • Stature 5’3” • Postcranial similar to modern humans • 880 cc • rib different from modern hominins TH February 26 2014 12 ISSUES AT TURKANA – MIGHT BE 2 H. ERGASTE R(AFRICAN HOMO ERECTUS) OR H. ERECTUS(CHINA)? Homo Ergaster 1. Large amount of variation Too large for one species? Groves & Mazak (1975) African specimens • Bones thinner • Smaller brow ridges Asian specimens • Shorter & stockier • Larger brow ridges 2. Temporal relationships • inconsistencies in the chronological transition of morphological changes from h. habilis to h. ergaster to h. erectus GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HOMO ERECTUS/ HOMO ERGASTE Cranial anatomy • 780 – 1225 cc (early homo is 600-800) • (1000 cc average) Increase in brain size • Wide at base from behind • Low cranial vault • Sagittal keel (front from the back of the head where the crest exists it is much smaller tho/ feels like lump) • Nuchal torus (back to neck muscles joint) • Supraorbital torus (top of the eye where eyebrows are) • Robust jaw • Teeth larger than modern human, but smaller than h. habilis • Back of the head is pentagon, widest near back bottom • Homo erectus postcranial anatomy • Postcranial skeleton similar to modern humans • Robust limb bones • Conical rib cage • Narrow hips • Stature: human range • < sex dimorphism than h. habilis H. ERECTUS IN EUROPE OR NORTHERN AFRICA? Dmanisi, Georgia TH February 26 2014 12 • Is the earliest homo found out of Africa • North of the Levantine Corridor • Approx 1.8 mya • 5 individuals • Average 650 cc • Homo georgicus or erectus? (Gabounia et. al., 2002) • Skull vault elongated, narrow, low • From behind skull widest at base • Sagittal keel • Postorbital constriction • Supraorbital torus Differences from Homo erectus • small face • More prognathic • Reminiscent of ea
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