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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 Biology & Evolution.doc

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Sherry Fukuzawa

th January 8 2013 Lecture 2: Biology & Evolution A Brief History of the Development of Thought on Human Evolution 1. Origin Myths  All human cultures seem to have a theory of belief surrounding the origins of humans  This emphasis Universal Explanations  How humans came into existence  Relationship of humans & other animals  How humans are the ultimate products of creation  Every human culture has its own human myth, may differ between detail but have a similar reason for where we came from, what the relationship between animals  Every cross culture myth humans are the most important 2. Fixity of Species  Species, once created can never change  Reflected powerful religious system in Europe  Accepted that all living things created by God  First believed humans never evolved and that the way we are now is how we we’re created, by an ultimate being (God), believed for a very long time 3. Great Chain of Being st th  1 proposed by Aristotle in 4 century BC, Still believed in fixity/creationism , but started to believe in a continuity  it places humans within a continuum with other organisms/ animals  All animals arranged in a hierarchy that progressed from simplest to most complex  Humans at top of hierarchy 4. Genus & Species John RAY • John Ray , 17 century came up with grouping animals based on how they reproduced • First one to recognize that animals can be grouped, first called them species  Saw that certain plants & animals could be distinguished from other groups by their ability reproduce with one another and produce viable offspring  Placed reproductively isolated groups of individuals in a category called “species”  Recognized that some species shared similarities called “genus”  5. Systema Natura; Linnaeus, 1735  Added family and order to john ray/ biological characteristics  Father of modern taxonomic  Classified living things into a hierarchy of taxonomic categories  Came up with binomial nomenclature th January 8 2013  Standardized Ray’s species & genus, & added class & order  Creationist, still believed in fixity 6. Uniformitarianism: Lyell, 1833  Influenced Charles Darwin  Came up with the word uniformatarism, geological things that happen today also happened before  Processes shaping the earth are the same today as they were in the past – uniform & continuous in nature  Time scale of the earth is in millions of years  Creationist  1. Recognized
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