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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 Primates .doc

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT101H5
Professor
Sherry Fukuzawa

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January 20 2014 5 Lecture 5: PRIMATES: Our Contemporary Relatives & The Basics of Primatology CH.6-dark blue PRIMATOLOGY • The Study of non-human primate biology & behavior • Focusing on order which we belong Analogies Structures that are superficially similar • Share a similar function • Built from different parts • Do not pass through similar stages during embryonic development • organisms do not share a common ancestor • two structures that appear similar in their function, but its usually a common environment • wings of birds vs. wings of bats, similar function but different structure Homologies • Pass through similar stages during embryonic development • organisms that share a common ancestor • May serve different functions • Some evolutionary relationship • Similar structure but different functions similar stages embryonically • Dogs and humans • Structures possessed by 2 different organisms that arise in a similar fashion All Primates: Kingdom - Animalia Phylum - Chordata Subphylum - Vertebrata Class - Mammalia, names through women • Arborealism- *life in the trees, being able to live in a tree, these are some characteristics that are needed Primate (order) Primate Characteristics of all order primates….. 1. Arboreal - limbs 2. Stereoscopic vision, good judge of distance 3. Binocular vision (forward facing eyes) January 20 2014 5 4. Color vision, depth perception 5. Fovea centralis *pit in the center of the retina that allows us to increase our pherepehal vision 6. Highly developed sense of touch 7. Enlarged, complex brain visual cortex 8. Retention of less specialized dentition 9. Primate Skeleton Skull features o High vaulted cranium o More rounded skull to jump from tree to tree, more development in from of the head (visual cortex), foramen magnum, where the head joins your spine o Forward shifted foramen magnum o Reduced snout o Post orbital bar (enclosed eye socket) Retention of Clavicle (collarbone) o Brachiation Pentadactyly (possessing 5 digits) o Prehensibility, 5 fingers o Complete bar behind eye is another main feature of primates, postotrabel bar (full eye socket) 10.Reproduction & Care of Young • Able to breed throughout the year, no breeding season • Reduction in the number of offspring born at one time to a female • Longer period of infant dependency on the mother Suborder: 1. Strepsirhini (Lemurs & lorises african and south east asia) Compared to Haplorini • Longer snouts, nocturnal, still have wet noses • Developed olfactory o Rhinarium o Long snout • Dental comb, teeth stick out like comb • Grooming claw second finger is very long • Leaping & clinging Infraorder: Lemuriformes Superfamily: a. Lemuroidea (lemur) b. Lorisoidea (all Lorises) Madagascar Africa, S & E Asia January 20 2014 5 Nocturnal 2. Haplorhini (tarsiers, monkeys, apes & humans) Compared to strepsirhini When tasiers are grouped with stre, they are called Prosiminan: • Generally larger body size • Larger brain • Rounded skull, reduction in snout • Lemurs do not have a totally in closed eye socket • Eyes rotated to the front • Flatter teeth • Bony plate at back of eye orbit • No rhinarium • Chisel like incisors • Increased parental care • Increased maturation • More mutual grooming Infraorder: 1. Tarsiformes (tarsiers) Haplorrhine most like the lemur Primitive features • Small body; grooming claw; large ears; unfused mandible • Nocturnal insectivore • Stable pair bonds • 2 piece jaw • does not have fleshy nose and has totally inclosed eye socket which is a indication of higher order primate • move their head 360 • Haplorrhine features • No rhinarium • Eye sockets enclosed in bone • Unique features • Enormous eyes • Rotate head 180 degrees • Elongated tarsal bone to leap long ankle b
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