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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 Human Diversity.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Sherry Fukuzawa

January 15 2014 4 Lecture 4 : ANT101 Human Diversity History of the study of human variation Linneaus 1758 Classificatory • Included homo • Successful in animals but failed in describing humans Separated humans into 5 categories • Americanus ( Red and ill tempered and free) • Europaeus (white serious blue eyes ruled by laws) • Asiaticus (greedy, black hair ruled by opinion) • Afer (black, silky skin) • Monstrosus (any deformed or imaginary people) Count de Buffon “Varieties of the Human Species (1749)” Important because… • He tried to be descriptive,** rejected classifying humans • Rejected classifications • Emphasized unity of species, holistic • Behavioral & cultural biases • **BUT He still had biases Problems in classifying humans Humans are both the investigators & subjects Inequalities & injustices Eugenics Use or application of the theories of natural selection for the betterment of the human populations Goal was for the betterment of the human species by the selective breeding for favorable traits Selective breeding humans Favorable traits in one culture may not be favorable in others Important figures in Eugenics Francis Galton • 1869 “Heredity Genius” • Prominence is inborn • Statistics • Used biology to reinforce social prejudices • Suggested people had certain traits that made them rich or poor at birth January 15 2014 4 Charles Davenport • Took up this idea^^ • 1911 “Heredity in relation to eugenics” • Established eugenics in US scientific program • Originated in the U.S • Immigration was key in eugenics • Objective was to develop a utopian How was eugenics to be carried out? • Restriction of immigration • Restriction of the propagation of undesirable heritable traits • Encouragement of breeding between individuals with desirable genetic traits • Eugenics took hold in National Socialist Germany, USA abandoned eugenics after World War 2 Ernest Hooton • Broke from eugenics movement, even before the second world war • **important because he believed Polymorphism and moved away from eugenics (A and C) • Polymorphism-a species with alternative forms (alleles) of particular genes within a population, more important then Polytypism: emphasis differneces between groups • Tried to emphasis that variation happens at individual level • Polytypism - The study of differences between groups • Polymorphic species is divided into geographically dispersed populations • The expression on genetic variants in different frequencies in different populations of a
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