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ANT101 - Lectures 2 and 3 (Evolution)

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Sherry Fukuzawa

ANT102 Wednesday January 8 2014 3ANT101 (Biology & Evolution) – Lecture 2 (Evolution) A Brief History of the Development of Thought on Human Evolution 1. Origin Myths • All human cultures seem to have a theory of belief surrounding the origins of humans • Universal Explanations • How humans came into existence • Relationship of humans & other animals • How humans are the ultimate products of creation 2. Fixity of Species • Species, once created can never change • Humans have always been the way they are today • Reflected powerful religious system in Europe • Accepted that all living things created by God 3. Great Chain of Being • 1 proposed by Aristotle in 4 century BC • All animals arranged in a hierarchy that progressed from simplest to most complex • Humans at top of hierarchy • Why is Aristotle important – he established a continuum of humans with other animals; he still adhered however to the fixity of a species 4. Genus & Species • John Ray, 17 Csentury – came up with the terms genus and species and defined it as individuals who can reproduce viable offspring • Saw that certain plants & animals could be distinguished from other groups by their ability reproduce with one another and produce viable offspring • Placed reproductively isolated groups of individuals in a category called “species” • Recognized that some species shared similarities called “genus” 5. Systema Natura; Linnaeus, 1735 (Father of Modern Taxonomy) • Classified living things into a hierarchy of taxonomic categories • Used binomial nomenclature • Standardized Ray’s species & genus, and added class & order • Creationist 6. Uniformitarianism: Lyell, 1833 • Processes shaping the earth are the same today as they were in the past – uniform & continuous in nature th ANT102 Wednesday January 8 2014 • They are cyclic and take a long time to occur • Time scale of the earth is in millions of years • Why is Lyell important? – He suggested that the age of the earth was significantly longer – looked at the geological past • Creationist 7. Survival of the Fittest; Malthus, 1798 • Speculated that  Human populations multiply geometrically  Food resources grow arithmetically Therefore,  Human populations will out grow resources unless there is a constant check to maintain a certain population size (humans will outgrow their food sources)  Not everyone born can possibly survive 8. Transformation; Lamarck, 1809  Why is Lamarck important? – He was the first person who did not agree with fixity of the species; believed in generational change  Most influential pre-Darwin evolutionist  Non-Darwinian features:  Lamarck differs from Darwin because he believes in: Inheritance of acquired characteristics (traits that are acquired over the lifetime of an individual that can be passed onto offspring)  Orthogenesis (the continuum of organisms – from the most simple to the most complex – there is an order of evolution) Darwin believed evolution was at random**  Vitalism (evolution was self motivated) -- 9. Darwinism  Charles Darwin, 1809-1882  Alfred Wallace, 1823-1913  Selection is the key to evolution  Struggle for existence means that those individuals with favorable variations survive & reproduce more successfully Three Observations: 1. Biological variation within all species 2. All species capable of reproducing at a faster rate than food supply 3. Competition for limited resources th ANT102 Wednesday January 8 2014 Five Deductions:  Individuals with favorable traits have an advantage  Traits are inherited and passed on to the next generation  Environment determines which traits are favorable  Over geological time, successful variations accumulate so that later generations may be distinct from their ancestors  Geographical isolation may lead to a new species ** Evolution is random and acts on the population – it is the frequency of the traits that change over time in a population ** Lecture 3: Modern Evolutionary Theory & Population Genetics Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)  Father of modern genetics  Provided mechanisms of natural selection via breeding experiments with peas; Determined how one trait passed from one generation to the next Principle of Segregation  Each unit pair separates in gamete production, so that each gamete contains one member of each pair. During fertilization individual units come together. Principle of Independent Assortment  Units (genes) that code for differ
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