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ANT101 - Lectures 5 and 6 (Primates)

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Sherry Fukuzawa

ANT101 Monday January 20 and 22 2014d LECTURE 5 – PRIMATES: Our Contemporary Relatives & The Basics of Primatology PRIMATOLOGY • The Study of non-human primate biology & behavior Analogies  Structures that are superficially similar  Similar in function but differs in embryonic development; does not represent an evolutionary relationship • Share a similar function  Built from different parts  Do not pass through similar stages during embryonic development • Organisms do not share a common ancestor Homologies  Structures possessed by two different organisms that arise in a similar fashion  Important because it represents a common evolutionary relationship • Pass through similar stages during embryonic development • Organisms that share a common ancestor • May serve different functions All Primates: Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Order Primate Primate Characteristics: US AND ALL PRIMATES SHARE THESE TRAITS *** 1. Arboreal – live in trees 2. Stereoscopic Vision – 3D vision; depth perception 3. Binocular Vision – forward facing eyes (also helps with depth perception) 4. Color Vision – also allows for great depth perception because you see more detail 5. Fovea Centralis – pit in the center of our retina that allows for key peripheral vision 6. Highly Developed Sense of Touch 7. Enlarged, Complex Brain 8. Retention of Less Specialized Dentition – to allow for a more diverse diet 9. Primate Skeleton  Skull Features  High vaulted cranium (need space for our large brains)  Forward shifted foramen magnum (round head for spine and upright posture) • Foramen = hole; magnum = head  Reduced snout (don’t require highly sensitive sense of smell anymore)  Post orbital bar (enclosed eye socket)  Retention of Clavicle (collarbone)  Brachiation – rotate arm without collapsing shoulder (acts as a strut)  Pentadactyly (possessing 5 digits)  Prehensibility – opposable thumbs 10. Reproduction & Care of Young ANT101 Monday January 20 and 22 2014nd  Able to breed throughout the year  Reduction in the number of offspring born at one time to a female (usually one)  Longer period of infant dependency on the mother Questions like: Is it a new world ape, an old world ape, etc? Suborder: 1. Strepsirhini (Lemurs & Lorises)  first primates to evolve • Primitive – more mammalian characteristics • Developed Olfactory • Rhinarium – moist fleshy pad at the end of the nose (think of a dog) • Long snout • Do not have a totally enclosed eye (no encased bony socket) • Dental comb – lower teeth stick out (is used for grooming and food) • Grooming claw (elongated second finger) • Leaping & clinging Infraorder: 1. Lemuriformes Superfamily: a. Lemuroidea (Lemur) • Only found in Madagascar b. Lorisoidea (Loris) • Africa, S & E Asia • Nocturnal 2. Haplorrhini (Tarsiers, Monkeys, Apes & Humans) Haplorrhini – fully encased eye socket ***** **Prosimian – refers to lemurs, lorises and tarsiers Haplorrhini Compared to Strepsirhini: • Generally larger body size • Larger brain • Rounded skull • Eyes rotated to the front • Bony plate at back of eye orbit • No rhinarium • Chisel like incisors • Increased parental care • Increased maturation • More mutual grooming Infraorder: 2. Tarsiformes (tarsiers) Haplorrhine most like the lemur Primitive Features: • Small body; grooming claw; large ears; unfused mandible • Nocturnal insectivore • Stable pair bonds Haplorrhine Features: • No rhinarium ANT101 Monday January 20 and 22 2014nd • Eye sockets enclosed in bone Unique Features: What are unique features of Tarsiers? • Enormous eyes (can’t move eyes but can move their heads all the way) • Rotate head 180 degrees • Elongated tarsal bone to leap 3. Anthropoidea (All Monkeys, Apes and Humans) Parvorder: 1.Platyrrhini (New world monkey) – “Flat-Face Monkeys”  South & Central America (THIS IS WHERE NEW WORLD MONKEYS ARE FOUND)  Wide range of size, diet, ecological adaptation  Broad flaring noses with outward nostrils (platyrrhine = flat nose)  Almost exclusively arboreal  UNIQUE TRAIT: Long prehensile tails – can swing through the trees by its tail  3 PMs (Dental Formula)  2 Incisors  1 Canine  3 Premolars (1 extra one from old monkeys!)  3 Molars 2. Catarrhini (old world monkey, apes, humans) ** Old world monkeys, apes and humans – nostrils faces downwards  Dental Formula  2 Incisors  1 Canine  2 Premolars  3 Molars Superfamily: 1. Cercopithecoidea (Old World Monkey) – ex: Macaques • Africa, S. Asia • Downward Nostrils • No prehensile tail – cannot swing from their tail; it is used for balance and communication --- Often called branch walkers • Quadrupedal, mostly arboreal – live in the trees (some c
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