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HOMINID Name Alternative Age of Prominent Place Best- Dis- Comments Taxonomy known associated Known covery CHEATSHEET fossils scientists Examples Ardipithecus 4.4my Tim White Afar White's 1993 Earliest known hominid. Still awaiting White's full description; preliminary reports hint that ramidus (Ethiopia) afar locomotion was a unique form of bipedalism not collection seen in any other hominids. Jaw and long bone fragments suggest that that it Australopithecus 4.2my to Meave Leakey Turkana Turkana 1996 was fully bipedal but with strong hand grip for anamensis 3.9my (Northern specimens Kenya) climbing, and more apelike jaws and teeth than later hominids. Australopithecus 3.8my to Don Johanson Afar Lucy, First 1974 The "Lucy" species found in Ethiopia, also said to afarensis 3.0my Tim White (Ethiopia) Family, have made the Laetoli footprints. Some dissidents Laetoli Laetoli say there's too much variation between the small (Tanzania Lucy and the larger specimens, that there are really two or more species in the Hadar collection, ) and that the more Homo-like form made the Laetoli prints. Kenyapithecus 3.5my Meave Leakey Turkana Meave's 2000 A recent addition to the hominid tree, platyops' ("flat face" ) has a small brain but its face is similar platyops Turkana to that of 1470, leading Meave Leakey to place finds them both in a new genus Kenyapithecus. Coexisting with afarensis and perhaps more humanlike, this could challenge afarensis' status as a human ancestor Australopithecus 2.9my to Raymond Dart S Africa Taung 1924 The Taung child's species, found in Southern africanus 2.4my Robert Broom child, Mrs. Africa, recently revealed to have long arms and Lee Berger Ples, short legs and said by some to have spent much Littlefoot time in trees. Discovered with stone tools and butchered bones, Australopithecus 2.5my Berhane Asfaw Afar White's 1997 garhi Tim White Afar this is White's candidate for a human ancestor specimens despite its having larger molars than its rival, A. africanus. Australopithecusa Paranthropus 2.7my to Richard Leakey Turkana "Black 1986 Most robust hominid known. Torpedoed Johanson ethiopicus ethiopicus 2.4my Alan Walker Skull" (WT- and White's "Lucy" phylogeny by showing that 17000) extreme robustness evolved long before A. robustus or A. boisei Australopithecus Paranthropus 2.3my to Louis Leakey Olduvai OH5 1959 Found at Olduvai after robust finds from South boisei boisei 1.4my Mary Leakey (Tanzania ("Zinj") Africa. Are they related, or a case of parallel evolution? Specimens of female boisei and ) robustus show that the much smaller females did not have a sagittal crest. Unique facial morphology and dentition, but large Homo habilis Homo 1.9my Richard Leakey Olduvai Turkana 1972 brain (775cc). Some call it an australopithecine. (large) rudolfensis Turkana 1470 Many now favor the species name rudolfensis to Australopithicus distinguish it from smaller "habilis," and Meave rudolfensis Leakey has it sharing a common genus with its
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