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Lecture 6

lec6 primate origins.doc

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT101H5
Professor
Sherry Fukuzawa
Semester
Summer

Description
ANT101: PRIMATE ORIGINS & Cladistics ¨Macroevolution  ¨Vertebrate & Mammalian taxonomy ¨Human diversity is seen as the result of microevolutionary forces – small changes in allele  frequencies acting on the human gene pool Vs Macroevolution appearance of new species due to many generational changes in allele frequencies ¨Principles of classification ¨Analogies ¡Structures that are superficially similar úShare a similar function úBuilt from different parts úDo not pass through similar stages during embryonic development úorganisms do not share a common ancestor úHOMOPLASY: process that leads to analogy ¨Homologies ¡Structures possessed by 2 different organisms that arise in a similar fashion úPass through similar stages during embryonic development úorganisms that share a common ancestor úMay serve different functions  ¨Systematics vs Cladistics systematics  ¨Traditional approach  ¨Categorize organisms based on homologous traits cladistics  ¨Determine ancestral versus derived (modified) homologous traits to determine lineage  ¨Clade: a group of organisms with a common ancestor ¨Macroevolution Divergent ¨A single ancestral species gives rise to 2 or more descendant species ¨Physical & social barriers Convergent ¨Two phylogenetically unrelated organisms develop greater similarities ¨Similar environments Ecological Niche A species way of life considered in the context of its environment (Haviland & Crawford,  2009:139) Adaptive Radiation Rapid diversification of an evolving population as it adapts to a variety of available niches  (Haviland & Crawford, 2009: 138) Major Periods & Epochs of Evolution of Life Paleozoic – Permian Period  (280 mya) • Permian Deposits show mammal–like reptiles • Slimmer  • Flesh eaters • Reduction in bones • Shifting limbs • Beginning of separation between mouth & nasal cavity • Dental differentiation Mezozoic (Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous periods) Reptiles prominent land vertebrates (dinosaurs) 1  mammals appeared: end of triassic period (190 mya) • Small flesh eaters • Nocturnal • enhanced smell & hearing • Enlarged cerebral cortex • Loss of color vision CENOZOIC (Age of Mammals) (including 1  appearance of Primates) • Associated with Large Climatic change • Separation of continents  • away from equator • Cooler temperatures • tropical & subtropical forests • Dinosaur extinction • Changing ecological niche • Radiation of new varieties of plants
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