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Anthropology (2,035)
ANT102H5 (401)
Victor Barac (106)
Lecture

Lecture 5

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT102H5
Professor
Victor Barac
Semester
Summer

Description
ANT102H5S – Introduction to Sociocultural and Linguistic Anthropology Lecture 04 – July 23, 2013 Culture and Economics 2 Intro to today’s lecture: - Adaptive strategies that had an enduring power throughout history - Industrial food production - Economic systems are built upon adaptive strategies - Sometimes economic systems look at consumptions, but is most of the time not considered under economic systems Economic Systems - Eco-nomos – Greek for “house” and “laws” o In a larger sense, applied to societies, it is the providing to societies needs - Production - Distribution - Exchange Production - How goods and services are made o Anything that is made requires three sources: resources, technology and labour - Resources o Things that are naturally occurring objects provided from the earth o Subsistence/ energy/ building materials  Water, air, food  Fire, wood, dung  Wood, stone, metal o Primacy of land o Have to be transformed into a useable form  Example: water needs to be purified; trees need to be chopped - Technology o Tools o Skills, knowledge  Are often embedded in institutions that are passed down - Labour o Work  Chopping wood, plowing fields o Division of labour  How well do the work activities are organized into a well work process  People can be engaged with hunting and gathering  in order to sell products for money, they are part of a market system Division of Labour (not part of lecture slides) - In the 18 century, economics was part of a larger discipline called political economy - One of the major figures in this movement was Adam Smith ANT102H5S – Introduction to Sociocultural and Linguistic Anthropology Lecture 04 – July 23, 2013 o Wrote one of the major economics treatises, the Wealth of Nations o About what constituted the wealth, and questioned why some were living in poverty? - Smith created a work essentially creating the model of discipline of economics - Argued that the division of labour in Britain worked really well for them - In his book, he looked at metal pins o How do you manufacture this? Who does it? How is it done? - He was able to observe the difference in output o 10 workers working for 1 hour is more productive because they rationalized the work load (as opposed to having 1 worker working for 10 hours) o Even though it is the same amount of labour hours, the 10 workers were from 240-4800 more productive - Smith said, in some of the 1 man shops, it took them all day to make 1 pin o Whereas having more workers, they were able to make 480 pins in one day Distribution - Who gets the product? - Ownership o Who grants you the rights of ownship?  Use rights (usufruct)  Usufruct – existence of ownership rights/ access rights  Concept of
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