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Lecture 6

Lecture 6

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Victor Barac

ANT102H5S – Introduction to Sociocultural and Linguistic Anthropology Lecture 05 – July 30, 2013 Politics Overview - Social Control - Conflict and Conflict Resolution - Political Organization Introduction to today’s course (not part of slides) - Poleis - Comes from the classical Greek word for city - Related Words: Policy, metropolis, cosmopolitan, polite - Politics has to do with social control - Today we will look at what happens when there is a break down due to conflict, and how it is resolved - Social Control - All societies have ways of maintain social order, and all societies have to deals with disruptions to the social order o All societies have ways of establishing equilibriums - Sources of disorder o There are all sorts of environmental forces that can distrupt order, ie: tsumani o Demographic o Economic disorder – lack of food - The social order itself does not depend solely on laws o Laws itself are intended to maintain social order, however laws themselves can cause disorder - Imperative for social order - Pervasiveness of social control o There are numerous mechanisms that maintain order that are interlocked o Range from settle to explicit laws and legal systems o Combination of practice and institutions Formal Mechanisms of Social Control - Are defined and standardized - Laws are usually written in a book, scroll laying down what everyone needs to obey Laws - Binding rules o Of “right behaviour” - Backed by force o They are backed by the threat of force. If you break the law, you are fine, you go to jail  ultimately there is a consequence - Legitimated by ideology o Could be a religious, political ideology ANT102H5S – Introduction to Sociocultural and Linguistic Anthropology Lecture 05 – July 30, 2013 - Example: Anglosaction is an example of a common law  “if it not forbidden, it is allowed” that is combined with aspects of Roman laws - Roman laws are with the laws of kingship o Empire of a professional class - Religion laws: Christianity, Islam Informal Mechanisms of Social Control - Socialization o The teaching of the rules, norms and values of society o Turning the individual into a social creature – someone able to interact and create dependency with other people o There will be a positive emotional attachments with others o Individuals motivation is to receive respect  seeking esteem and wanting to please others in order to receive respect o You get conflict over who gets the esteem  sibling rivalry o All societies have a reward system that reward people who adhere to the social norms of the society - Gossip o Important form of social control o It is a form of group communication where you are assessing/reporting someone’s behaviour o Later assessing people’s reaction to this behaviour o Evaluating, monitoring and assessing people’s behaviour - Shaming and ridicule o Involves the disapproval and ridicule of people’s behaviour and actions o The psychological effect of expressing ridicule or disapproved behaviour: you feel a loss of esteem and respect from others o Guilt is a very powerful means of social control o Joking is a suddle mean of ridicule o Shaming is a very powerful form of social control, especially in communities o Many small socieites have institutions of shaming o Example: southwestern USA – HOPI – where they have clown that perform and act in ways where Hopi’s wouldn’t. o Example: Mbuti - Witchcraft accusation o Parts of the world still believes in witchcraft and that people have the ability to cast spells o Witches are really rarely ever seen o How accusations functions, they are evoked after a period of a long transgression o People who are perceived to be involved in prolonged deviant behaviour, o Usually envoked against people who are seem as a “bad influence” ANT102H5S – Introduction to Sociocultural and Linguistic Anthropology Lecture 05 – July 30, 2013 o Problem: the accusation can escalate, where everyone can be accused of being a witch in a society o Witchcraft is basically a form of crystallization of public opinion Conflict - The idea of when differences turn into violent confrontation o Conflict is generated by different structures and have different motivation o We tend to differentiate into personal violence and political violence and warfar - Interpersonal violence o - Political violence – violence that is directed into the goal of asserting social control o Rebellions  Forms of organized environments that arise spontaneously that can be organized to address injustice o Coups d’état  Attempt to depose the ruler and seize power  Some are successful  Belgaads 1903 where the king was young and stupid. The military didn’t like the kinds, and killed the king and queen and didn’t make a big deal out of it.  Example of unsuccessful: Dublin 1919, Irish nationalist were attempting to impose the British rule
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