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ANT102H5 (401)
Victor Barac (106)
Lecture 7

Lecture 7

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Victor Barac

ANT102H5S – Introduction to Sociocultural and Linguistic Anthropology Lecture 06 – August 1, 2013 Kinship, Mating and Marriage Overview - Kinship terms, symbols and diagrams - Family - Marriage - Descent - Descent groups - BaKgatla women’s life course (Suggs) Kinship Symbols - The textbook covers this in detail Kin Classificatioin - Consanguineal vs. Affinal Kin o “Blood” relatives vs. relatives through marriage o In the diagram, (from the perspective of EGO), yellow is the family through marriage, green is for blood family, and red refers to lineal, your blood ancestors (branching off is collateral, brother, sister, aunt) o The squares (at the bottom of the diagram) represents undetermined sex (Example: death at birth) - Lineal vs. Collateral Kin o Direct vs. Parallel lines of descent Domestic Life - Basic social groupings o Family  Can be split, and organized as a network  Canada definition: “A marriage or common wealth couple, with or without children” or “A lone parent with dependent children”  In Brazil, family consists of: parents, siblings, grandparents (spouse is not considered family, it is separate) o Household  Consisting of people who aren’t blood relatives Family Functions st - G.P. Murdoch Social Structure (1949) – 1 major cross-cultural comparison/ basis of HRAF (Human Relations Area Files) - Diminishes sexual competition o Family determines who is expected who is available as a sexual partner o When - Protects child-bearing females o Families provide a network of kin, a support group o Especially in tribal society, your survival depends on kin - Provides the primary context of enculturation o Children like to walk and talk ANT102H5S – Introduction to Sociocultural and Linguistic Anthropology Lecture 06 – August 1, 2013 - Defines division of labour by sex o The vast majority, in traditional society, there is a definite order of division of labour by gender o Basis of the economy The Nuclear Family - Not always the ideal forms of society - It is more significant in some societies - Family of orientation = Natal Family - Family of procreation = Conjugal Family The Extended Family - Found just around every, and dominant and domestic form in the preindustrial world o It is the basis for domestic division - Stem family o The ideal form, a set of parents, and their children, and extended children o Example: Many parts of India - Joint family o Can have a pair of siblings, and would form a basis of an extended family o Example: Many parts of China o This provides a flexible workforce o Very powerful form of family organization o You can have a conflict of loyalties - In 1950s, the Barotse were renouned for having a big family o Multiple of wives and children comprising of one extended family o They had a saying “if a man is too devoted to his wife, he is a victim of witchcraft” The Extended Family Today - New family forms supplant the extended family in industrial society o Industrial tends to create conditions for the separation of nuclear families o Industrial societies require a mobile a labour force - Nuclear family o When people start living in urban cosmopolitan form, the nuclear family becomes the dominant form - Single-parent family - Blended family o Families that result from the combination of fragments of other families - Expanded family o The incorporation of kinship to the group - All these families forms are expressed in popular culture Marriage Rules - Exogamy o Marrying outside your family o Prohibition against close relations but how those close relations are ANT102H5S – Introduction to Sociocultural and Linguistic Anthropology Lecture 06 – August 1, 2013 defined, varies o Most societies ban sex and marriage between family members o In Catholicism, forbids marriage up until the 3 cousins o Edward Tyler, came up with the phrase “marry out or die out”  says that all human societies have rules for exogamy - Endogamy o Types of rules that specify, that people must marry within a certain group o Example: Religion is an important organizing ritual or Racial inclusivity (must marry within your race) o There are not enforced by law - Prescriptive rules o Must marry to specific kinship - Preferential rules o What is the dominant rule system for marriage in Canada o Leaves it up to individuals, where you can only have one spouse at a time o Are more complex and implicit where there are not formalized Kariera: Example of prescriptive marriage - There are four basic groups Forms of Marriage - Monogamy o Strict vs. Serial o Strict monogamy = One spouse for life o Serial = One spouse at a time o In Canada, we have serial monogamy, where we have no limit - Polygamy (many spouses) o Polygyny  Multiple wives  Example: Yanoamo, Bathonga o Polyandry  Multiple husbands  Example: Nyimba, Toda Functions of Marriage - Edmund Leach (1995) cross cultural study – marriage assigns, defines, and organizes - Parental legitimacy o Who is the legitimate guardian? o In most part of the world, in divorce, the children go with the mother o In Iran, the children go with the father - Sexual access o Whether it will be monogamy or multiple affairs o In Canada, you cant force your spouse to have sex o In other counties, you are forced to have sex with your spouse - Labour ANT102H5S – Introduction to Sociocultural and Linguistic Anthropology Lecture 06 – August 1, 2013 o Access to the spouses labour - Property o To the extend, when you get married, it creates a family as a legal entity o All societies have law in terms of property o Everything after you get married, you share (In Canada) - Inheritance o Rules for the children’s benefit o Example: Primogeiture – the oldest inherits the family property o Example: Ultimogeniture – the person who can on the farm the longest, will inherit the farm, usually the youngest - Affinal relations o When people do things like arranged marriage, whether the spouses like each other or not, the primary concern is to establish a group o People you can create a network with, or rely on for support - Generally, marriage is a social contract, between individuals and also groups o It is an institution that helps perpetuate societies by confirming rewards Transfer of Wealth and Rights - Very often, it takes a period of weeks, even years - Brideservice o Ju honsi people (given in the text) o Upon marriage, the husband has to go and serve the bride’s family o In type of societies where women’s labour is highly valued o Practiced among the Kekchi Maya Indians  horticultural people (gardeners)  Upon marriage, men are expected in their father-in-laws garden for at least 2 years before living with the fathers kin - Brideweath o Purchasing of a bride
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