Imagined Community: refers to the idea that nation are big there are a lot of
TERENCE BANGER: you cant know all the people in a nation there are thousands of people…u cant know
them all since u have no personal relationship…but somehow u play a imaginary common descent of the
nation integrating ideology…how do u draw or bind people together ideologically. That is what
nationalism is- it’s a way of manipulating sentiment inorder to create commonalities and subsunction of
differences into one imagine community…and you do this with an integrating ideology…this sentiment is
integrated with all sorts of things like songs (eg. National anthem, flags, monuments, celebrations,
festivals etc) all make ppl weak
it also builds on cultural forms that are essentially communicate books magazines, films, tv – there is
always this debate in Canada about culture being drowned in American culture ( we have to protect
Canadian culture ) funding things like playboy night.
National culture= political issue. National sentiment is often build on very strong military exports…battle
of sort of clinge for the existing power…military exports over the centuries (Eg. Greeks-marathon)
National ideology…what is rememberance day about what is the history…world war 1
-all of this is pressed into a particular reason…its something to do with something broadly known as
national interest…it has to do with which nation is going to control the leaders of power in a state= THAT
IS WHAT ITS ABOUT
If you control the government the state than you control all aspects of economic activities.
--eg. Who are your preferred clients…fix local commodity prices. You control exports
2/3 state budgets are dedicated to controlling these sorts of things and when you add to that the power
of setting taxation rate…people realize that government is the best business to be in.
Governments are the business that can control.- the control over the resources – economics of the
country may or may not lead to conflict.
- maybe all segments of pop is satisfied with it.
- These national development projects where countries seek investments from outside
-geographic development- it will develop in faster rate than others creating a culture disconnect
eg. Iran oil industry was developing all of these petrodollars that was flowing into the country much of it
was being converted into conspicuous consumptious I.e. the bulk of the pop was in poverty while the
others were really really rich
Foreigners don’t have much wealth so they don’t fight over it…but when people have wealth they ccare
so they start fighting over it
National development projects are a source of wealth but wealth is a source of conflict.
eg. Country of benine agreed to accept European waste to be in their ditches and dams
-- they took in all this industrial waste….it went right in the home riding of the leader of the political
opposition…political turmoil…national development ( its good for some in the nation NOT ALL) It can fuel internal conflict
Politics of national identitiy= co existence or genocide= they need to find a way to coexist
eg. Brazil since 1900 one tribe has disappeared (gone extinct every year) its not because they hate the
Indians….we love u we just want ur land…we just want the resources and ur land. Its simple…
They startled their gold is found on their land…everyone in that industry is interested in that land…
- gold marketing role= that has gone from $200-$1700- there was this recent crash
- there was this demand…chinese government invested heavily on Gold
- many indigenous people that were sitting on land…were removed…the idea of ur locality is very much
linked to international forces and causation…what is happening here is linked to new york…
Forest in BC…some body is buying that forest and cutting and making stuff out of it
- The struggle for the resources is the principle cause for the refugees crises in the world
-Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Iraq, Israel…etc.
The industrial world consumes huge RESOURCES ( the resources is the only thing that’s key for them )
-Culture…u can have all the culture u want u just give me the money…
Applied Anthropology: practical application of anthropology if you recall at the beginning of the year
there was a dinction btw basic vs. applied research….
1. Medical: done generally 3 basic model:
Biomedicl model: scientific epistemology: health as a function of the body…looks at the body as
natural…or part of a natural system= the biomedical model rooted in the sciences (MD work by this)
- focus is on the human body and its functions. Looks at diseases and health of the function of the body
Looks at the health as basically an internal condition- health is conceived as condition internal to the
body. If someone is sick the problem is the body ( there is something wrong with the body)
CLAUDE BERNARD= French first medical doctor…introduction to study of experimental medicine 1865
elaborated a scientific method – argues that medicine had ot use observation and experiement-
induction and deduction…he argued that modern medicine had to practice live surgery of humans and
--He developed a theory of homeostatsis- theory of equilibrium…the body has various process that
maintain a constant temperation ( blood doesn’t go up and down when temp changes…)
---that functioning body has to maintain equilibrium- disease and sickness is a result of disruption…that
idea is adopted Emile Durkheim= founders of modern sociology…he adopted bernard’s model of
equilibrium to describe society…he used the basis of functionalism= idea that diff organ system that is
interconnected is kind of like society…division of labour..he gets his root metaphor for society ( for some
its strength for others are fatal flaws and disputes…) they are two diff types of entities Epidemiology= its distribution is in population not just in a single body
- they would use demographies, bio statistics to study things like diabetes…this type of research is very
common in public health…working hospitals as medical anthropologist attach to this.
Medical anthro= one of the growth areas.
--getting articles published. The journal is one of the most prestige journal as well.
Question: biomedical mode: t has its uses…for centuries it took to develop or crystalize but there are
limits to the biomedical model…and this is where cultural interpretative model comes in for the medical
anthropologies…it looks at the limits of the biomedical model and moves on from there
eg. Tenant in my house who is an older guy and is kind of a weirdo…couple years ago he started getting
cough- and I never connected that he didn’t want me to go in…(he starts seeing specialists, going to
doctors, uft medical centres whos end him to all these specialist…drugs and he kept coughing…
By accident one day im walking by…really filty and dirty…this mole started growing…it took 2 days of
professional cleaning team and threaten to throw him out to bring a cleaner once a month to the entire
place to do – THEY WERE LOOKING INTO his body but not outside his body…where was he living? In a
relaly really bad env…it was very dirty thigns growing in there…MEDICAL ANTHRO actually go into their
patients house to see if that might playa facto
KURU= disease…started among the fore people (PNG) to have a higher incidence of this disease than
any other population of the world…it attacks the nervous system people who get it get convulsions…lose
control of their body and die ( its very fatal= cesures)
Slow virus- believe that there are some kind of a latent viral cause that could live for long periods of time
and was a very hard to eliminate or kill so that was back than vs. now that the science has progressed
now we have attributed it to PRION= viral entities. They are very pathogenic…very gatal because they
are introduced they have a very unique features not viruses but sub viral- detrimental
Why is it that it is mostly of Kuru women and the children of Kuru