November 7, 2012
Anthropology: Lecture 4
What is nature?
Biology: a hermaphrodite differs from what female or male really is.
15% of species can be classified as intersex
Intersexuals classify as much as 4% of human
Western-Euro American culture is deeply committed to the idea that there are only two
Biologically speaking, however, there exist gradations of female and male; both in the
Sworn Virgin: Albanian women who decide to become the opposite gender
Two-Spirits, a Third Gender in Native North America
- Could be opposite gender or something else called Two-spirits
Hijras: Similar to Two-Spirits and
Sex is a biologival categorization
Gender is the cultural elaboration of biological sex
- Always performed according to historically performed norms and culturally
We all perform normative gender discourses or we play and modify them
OR we play games and try to avoid them
How gender normativity is modified different contexts
What are the gender norms that Wester-Euro-
Ideology: a shared, tacit set of perceptions and feelings people have for explaining,
interpreting, justifying and jusding the world – including the people inhabiting it.
Ideologies often justify (and reproduce) inequalities
Gender ideologies hold that men and women, boys and girls, are different from each
The ubiquity of the view of male and female as opposites is witnessed in the common
English expression the opposite sex. Rarely do you hear an alternative expression, such as
the other sex much less another sex.
- Girls spoken to with softer tones
- Boys harsher tones November 7, 2012
- Voice provides a dramatic example of children coming to perform gender. At the