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Ant102-Oct2-Elements of Language: Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics.docx

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Victor Barac

10/2/2013-Week 4 3:11 PMay, October 2, 2013 Elements of Language 2 OVERVIEW 1. Phonology 2. Morphology 3. Syntax 4. Semantics Syntax It is: Rules of sentence and phrase formation 1. Syntagmatic set of rules – rules of concatenation -the chaining together of words (sequencing of words) • E.g., SVO or OSV or VSO? 2. Paradigmatic – rules of substitution • E.g., nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc. I (subject) walk (verb) to work (noun) Can make substitution in the order Phrases Anything more than one word • Head of a phrase -what is it here? (The chair) Chair • Noun phrase [NP] - groups of words that work as a noun • Verb phrase [VP] -groups of words that work as a verb • Adjective phrases [AP] • Adverb phrases [AdvP] • Prepositional phrases [PP] Phrase Marking (get picture) The Tree Diagram for syntax S->NP -> N student S ->VP -> Verb-> VB Look S ->VP ->PP -> Prep at etc. Adj art ->Aux ->tense -ed Art The I sit=complete proposition I sit on the chair- the chair is the clause, it has no independent meaning Phrase Structure Rules Grammatical rules are unconscious Rules: • The art student looked at a very beautiful painting. S à NP VP • NP à Art Adj N • VP à V PP • Verb à VB aux • Aux à tense • tense à past • PP à Prep NP Language is one of the most important aspect of culture. If language is embedded in us in our unconscious, what about the rest of culture? Food, sex, politics etc. Syntagmatic Variation One way to classify languages is through syntax 1. English: The boy drank the water. (SVO) 2. Russian: Malcik vypil vodu. (SVO) 3. Turkish: Çoçuk suyu içti. (SOV) 4. Arabic: Šaraba lwaladu lma?a. (VSO) Lexical Semantics Study of meaning Most basic level of semantics=semants Key concepts define semantics: 1. Referent - the thing that words refer to (objects, state of mind, imaginary) 2. Referential vs. grammatical meaning - some words have real referent others not ie. The, of, about no real meaning of their own 3. Shifting referents - ie. You 1 person vs. you whole class. We and they 4. Hyponyms - generic term ie. The colour red includes: scarlet, crimson, etc.; candy; dogs. They have a hierarchy 5. Synonyms - establish equivalency of words 6. Homonyms - same sound with different meaning ie. Foul vs fowl; knows vs nose 7. Antonyms - words that have opposite meanings. Ie. Alive and dead; big and little; parent and child Semantic properties 1. Semantic domains -a category. Sets of words that share a common meaning. Carries a lot of meaning. There's a hierarch
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