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Lecture

Ant102-Oct30- Kinship, Mating, Marriage, Family.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT102H5
Professor
Victor Barac

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10/30/2013-Week 8 (missed 10-/21 10/28) Wednesday, October 30, 2013 3:59 PM Kinship, Mating, and Marriage OVERVIEW 1. Kinship terms, symbols & diagrams 2. Family 3. Incest prohibition 4. Marriage 5. Descent 6. Descent Groups Kinship Symbols M Mother F father Z sister B brother Look at slides for rest Kin Classification 1. Consanguineal vs. Affinal Kin • “Blood” relatives vs. relatives through marriage 2. Lineal vs. Collateral Kin • Direct vs. parallel lines of descent Domestic Life Basic social groupings • Family • Household Family Functions G.P. Murdoch Social Structure (1949) –1st major cross‐cultural comparison / basis of HRAF (Human Relations Area Files) 1. Diminishes sexual competition 2. Protects child‐bearing females 3. Provides the primary context of enculturation 4. Defines division of labour by sex The Nuclear Family • Family of orientation = natal family • Family of procreation = conjugal family The Extended Family Stem family Joint family The extended family today New family forms supplant the extended family in industrial society 1. Nuclear family 2. Single‐parent family 3. Blended family 4. Expanded family Incest Prohibition and Exogamy 1. Genetic theory 2. Degeneration theory 3. Aversion theory [Eduard Westermarck] 4. Family harmony theory [Freud; Malinowski] 5. Social cooperation theory [E. B. Tylor] Incest Prohibition hidden slide Marriage Rules 1. Exogamy 2. Endogamy 3. Prescriptive rules 4. Preferential rules Kariera: Example of prescriptive marriage Forms of Marriage 1. Monogamy 1. Strict vs. serial (serial=can be married to one person at a time but as many times as you want. Strict = like catholic church, marry once and that's it) 2. Polygamy 1. Polygyny e.g., Yanomamo, Bathonga - one man several wives-more common. Widely practiced Ideal in many places, high status form of marriage. Bathonga: have form where each wife has a separate domicile. Husband shares 1 night per wife. The psychology of marriage is considered in anthro, like conflict b/w wives like younger and older wives. For males to increase status get multiple wives but also increasing your conflict in life. 2. Polyandry e.g. Nyimba, Toda-one women several husbands The toda- military type of group and loose form of marriage The Nyimba-young woman was married to 4 brothers= fraternal polyandry, most common type. First child no matter who the father is the 1st husband is the father etc. Woman can't show favoritism of her husband she' loves. Must be egalitarian Functions of Marriage Edmund Leach (1955) cross cultural study – marriage assigns, defines, and organizes (key functions, marriage rules) 1. Parental legitimacy -whose kids are these. In Canada 2. Sexual access -marriage usually involves some stipulation of sexual intimacy, will extra-marital affairs be tolerated?, how many times a week must perform duties 3. Labour -Provides access to your spouse's labour, gives you a right to a share in spouses labour. 4. Property- property rights b/c family is a legal entity ex. The simple law in Canada =you share everything you get from after you get married=prenups 5. Inheritance -for the benefit of the children usually. Ex. Primogeniture=oldest offspring gets the properties in Italy, every offspring get an equal share of the property when parents die. The oldest get the family farm and others get no share in it. Ultimogenitery-the youngest get the property 6. Affinal relations- marry out or die out. Expand your network and makes you more powerful, have access to more resources, get more respect, esteem in most societies in you have strong affinal relations. In some cases you're not fully humans until married and have offsprings Transf
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