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ANT102 - 2nd half of the term - November 5th, 2012.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Andrea Muehlebach

Gender Hermaphrodite - an organism that differs from what is usually defined as standard male or female. • may have an unusual chromosomal makeup (male babies can be born with two X chromosomes), hormonal differences, or a range of configurations and combinations of genitals and reproductive organs. • 15 percent of animals can be determined as intersex creatures What is Nature? What is culture? – What is sex? – a biological categorization based primarily on reproductive potential What is gender? – it is the CULTURAL expression of the gender definition. is therefore always performed according to culturally specific norms and possibilities. Scholars call this the performativity of gender. Youtube Video – Sworn Virgins A person in Albani, Bosnia or Serbia buta woman who has sworn to live her life as a man. It is a social situation where there are not enough men to live in a family From a cultural perspective, there are many ways for gender to be expressed. Colonizing Europeans discovered that Native peoples had a cateogory of people called “2spirit” which allowed people to inhabit a gender not male or female but one that was in question. These 2 genders were apparently respected in the community because they were go betweens when marriage were arranged or when fights broke out. Hijra – Question for midterm/exam – what are the GENDER NORMS or GENDER IDEOLIGIES ? our lives and our relationship with one another IDEOLOGY - a shared, tacit set of perceptions and feelings people have for explaining, interpreting, justifying, and judging the world - including the people inhabiting it. Ideologies often justify (and reproduce) inequalities. Gender Ideology - often hold that men and women and boys and girls are fundamentally DIFFERENT from eachother. consists of the shared, tacit set of perceptions and feelings people have for explaining, interpreting, justifying, and judging the people in relation to their gender (“She sits like a man”).A gender ideology often justifies gender hierarchy. Toys, Home, Kitchen, Office, Gym – these locations are subtly gender based.
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