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homo heidelbergensis & neandertals.doc

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT102H5
Professor
Karen Kus
Semester
Winter

Description
ANT101 homo heidelbergensis (transitional forms) Archaic homo sapiens Homo heidelbergensis (transitional forms)  @ 800 ­ 600,000 ya • Homo erectus gave rise to a bigger brained descendent • Probably occurred in Africa or Western Eurasia Primitive features • Prominent brow ridges • Robust jaw • Thick cranial bones • Pronounced neck muscles • Receding forehead Derived features • Brain expansion (1212cc average) • Globular head shape • Decrease in molar size Transitional Sites AFRICA Bodo, Ethiopia • 600,000 ya Primitive • Low vault • Massive brow ridge • Large neck muscles • Larger teeth Derived • Thinner bones of vault • More modern cranial base ASIA (as yet undiagnosed) 580,000 – 100,000 ya Yunxian 580,000 • Oldest Asian site • Mosaic of h. erectus & h. sapien traits  Primitive • Robust brow ridge Derived • Thin cranial vault • 1390 cc  • Globular skull • Gracile face EUROPEAN Transitional Sites 500,000 – 250,000 ya Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain Sima de los Huesos • Pit of Bones • 325,000 – 200,000 ya • 32 individuals  • 1125­1390 cc     Mauer, Heidelberg, Germa y • Mauer mandible • 500,000 ya • Prototype specimen Gran Dolina, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain Oldest h. heidelbergensis sites (homo antecessor?) • 800,000 ya Ceprano, Italy 900­800,000 ya Early homo heidelbergensis (600,000 – 400,000 ya) Acheulean tool technology Striking platform method • Africa • Europe • India LEVALLOISIAN TECHNIQUE • Later h. heidelbergensis Middle Paleolithic 300/200,000 ya – common by 100,000 ya • Africa, Europe, Middle East & China • Stemmed points, composite tools, hafted spears, knives, scrapers Advantages over acheulean • Smaller, longer edged flakes • Sharper edges • More time efficient Prepared core Technique Carefully preparing stone core then producing finished implement with a single blow 1.Chip core around sides & top 2.Tortoise core produced 3.Well aimed blow at one end 4.Detach flake of predetermined size & shape Other cultural advancements of transitional forms • Hafting /composite tools • Attaching small stone bifaces & flakes to handles of wood • Spears & knives •
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