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lec2 & 3 evolution.doc

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Karen Kus

ANT101 Biology & Evolution A Brief History of the Development of Thought on Human Evolution 1. Origin Myths  All human cultures seem to have a theory of belief surrounding the origins of humans  Universal Explanations  How humans came into existence  Relationship of humans & other animals  How humans are the ultimate products of creation 2. Fixity of Species  Species, once created can never change  Reflected powerful religious system in Europe  Accepted that all living things created by God 3. Great Chain of Being  1 proposed by Aristotle in 4 century BC  All animals arranged in a hierarchy that progressed from simplest to most complex  Humans at top of hierarchy 4. Genus & Species • John Ray , 17 century  Saw that certain plants & animals could be distinguished from other groups by their ability reproduce with one another and produce viable offspring  Placed reproductively isolated groups of individuals in a category called “species”  Recognized that some species shared similarities called “genus” 5. Systema Natura; Linnaeus, 1735  Classified living things into a hierarchy of taxonomic categories  Used binomial nomenclature  Standardized Ray’s species & genus, & added class & order  Creationist 6. Uniformitarianism: Lyell, 1833  Processes shaping the earth are the same today as they were in the past – uniform & continuous in nature  Time scale of the earth is in millions of years  Creationist 7. Survival of the Fittest; Malthus, 1798  Speculated that  Human populations multiply geometrically  Food resources grow arithmetically Therefore  Human populations will out grow resources unless there is a constant check to maintain a certain population size  Not everyone born can possible survive 8. Transformation; Lamarck, 1809  Most influential pre-Darwin evolutionist  Non-Darwinian features:  Inheritance of acquired characteristics  Orthogenesis  Vitalism 9. Darwinism  Charles Darwin, 1809-1882  Alfred Wallace, 1823-1913  selection is the key to evolution  Struggle for existence means that those individuals with favorable variations survive & reproduce more successfully Three observations 1. Biological variation within all species 2. All species capable of reproducing at a faster rate than food supply 3. Competition for limited resources Five Deductions 1. Individuals with favorable traits have an advantage 2. Traits are inherited and passed on to the next generation 3. Environment determines which traits are favorable 4. Over geological time, successful variations accumulate so that later generations may be distinct from their ancestors 5. Geographical isolation may lead to a new species Lecture 3: Modern Evolutionary Theory & Population Genetics Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)  Father of modern genetics  Provided mechanisms of natural selection through breeding experiments with peas  Determined how one trait passed from one generation to the next Principle of Segregation  Each unit pair separates in gamete production, so that each gamete contains 1 member of each pair. During fertilization individual units come together. Principle of Independent Assortment  Units (genes) that code for different traits assort independently of each other during gamete formation and recombine in offspring. Genes  Unit of heredity – controls trait  Portion of DNA molecule  Contains several base pairs to direct the production of a particular protein. Alleles  Alternate forms of a si
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