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ANT200 - September 18th, 2012.doc

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David Smith

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Prof Email: [email protected] Topic 2 (for this week) 1. Arch. Data 2. Research Design 1. Composed of EMPIRICAL DATA (experienced and material database in the broadest sense) - arch data is concerned with 3 basic classes of specific data: Artifacts, features, ecofacts Anthropological Archaeology – the scientific study of MATERIAL (experienced) evidence (past experiences), of human activity, what we KNOW, and the unknown is the experience that created the material evidence. Why do we want to gather this information? - for purposes of anthropological explanation and reasoning 3 elements: 1. “experienced” material evidence 2. unobserved human activity 3. explanation of human activity Units of Archaeology Empirical : material evidence - artifacts Analytical: variables & values Inferential: anthropological unity (family etc) Material Evidence – know this shit!!!! {Physical} – Artifacts, Features, Ecofacts {Spatial} – Sites, Regions Physical --- Artifacts – portable objects whose form is modified or wholly created by human activity. (clay pot, tutankhuman) Features – non portable human-made remains that cannot be removed from their place of discovery without altering or destroying their original form. (burials, storage pits, roads, great pyramids of giza) Ecofacts – nonartifactual remains that have cultural relevance, material evidence of human activity. Ex – waste material, bones, pollen, grains Attribute {Special Term} – the observable & measureable trait of material evidence Ex – color of someone’s hair , how tall you are etc Spatial --- Site – the local concentration of material (experienced) evidence. Spatial clustering or archaeological remains. Ex – Stonehenge Regions – a group of sites, areal distribution of archaeological evidence. How sites are distributed in space. Ex – Princess Point Matrix – the physical medium that surrounds, holds, and supports archaeological data. THE PHYSICAL CONTEXT Ex – combinations of soil, sand, gravel, or rock Provenience – the physical location within a 3 dimensional space . Ex – GPS coordinates Association – 2 or more artifacts (or any other general data) occurring together in the same matrix (physical medium)
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