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Lecture 3

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Esteban Parra

Lecture 3: Sir Francis Crick: he discovered the structure of DNA (1916-2004), got noble price -central dogma of molecular biology: DNA- how the genetic info is passed which is from DNARNAProtein Basic Units of life: Bacteria and complex cells= ukoriyotes = have a nucleus- the genetic is within nucleus v.s Prokaryotes= have no nucleus eg. Bacteriahave plasmids -Eukaryotes= Cytoplasm: includes Mitochondria passed from the mother’s egg. Its imp if you study nuclear DNA= mass perspective history from both sides…migration from the female side…if you study the chromosome you will learn about the history from the male side. The molecule of life=DNA: -secret of life: it was a very big discovery= he was able to explain how genetic material was passed from one generation to the next—go to mendel experiments and see how inheritance really works - this was a famous discovery by Francis Crick and James Watson: not the case that they discovered on their own -ROSALIND FRANKLIN: chemist= specialized in X-ray fraction -Murice Wilkins= worked in the same college -DNA known to be responsible for genetic material (however the structure of it was still unknown) -ATGC- the proportion of A=T, G=C similar known by Arien shaargaf…there was a race to find out the structure of DNA Linus Pauling: most brilliant scientist- won the noble price twice for chemistry = structure of proteins, and peace noble price= fight for against weapons -Rosaind and Maurice didn’t get along very well: Watson and crick came up with a model which was a triple helix instead of two and they thought they were able to figure out the problem…they went to talk to Rosalind Franklin- she told them they were wrong cause she had a knowledge about chemistry -Watson and Crick knew they were wrong…Watson got along with Maurice Wilkins…whne he was visiting Maurice…he showed him the X-ray defraction that Rosalind was able to get with detailed traits…and they put together the structure of DNA based on the picture…without Rosalind knowing. -Watson, Crick and Maurice all got a noble price…but Rosalind didn’t get noble price because she died very young but she was key for the discovery The structure of DNA: key elements are called Nitrogenous bases= rings containing nitrogen…u needto know TWO main pclasses: purines= A+ G=have 2 rings and pyrimidines= HAVE Only one ring= they are the ones forming the bones btw the complementary Nucleotides: nitrogenous base= AGTC, they have a sugar can be of two types: RNA or DNA ribose or deoxyribose -Phosphate groups: the three nuceleotides have 3 phosphate : Deoxyadenosine triphosphate -when nucleotide get into DNA they lose two phosphate and end up with only one this is imp in how u understand the PROCESS OF REPLICATION Bonding:DNA has 2 strands and they are connected thoruhg H bonds ( shargaaf discovered this) A=T, G=-C ( 3 H bonds), Everytime u see an A u will se a T in the other strand…C=-G this is how when DNA seperates you are able to figure out the other strand..its the complementary strand DNA structure polymer= deocynucelotides - they are joined together by phosphodiester bonds…5’ and 3’ ( which is the number of the carbon) -This is the famous DNA backbone…(GO TO WEBSITE that shows structure) -5’ and 3’= direction= this has to deal with how life works…our DNA polymeraze= enzymes for synthesizing DNA for replication only work in one direction if
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