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Lecture 2

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Esteban Parra

Lecture 2: Biological Anthropology and Evolution Science based on facts and observation- verifiable truth a critical effort to understand eg-Humans have larger brains and smaller teeth Hypothesis: explanation for the observed fact and all must be testable- a potential must exist for the hypothesis to be rejected. – After testing it several time and the results are the same it becomes a theory- that is the relationship btw facts, hypothesis and theory Everything has to start with observation…than u frame hypothesis and u test it and u either accept it or reject it (after several times of testing- it becomes a theory in science) Anthropology: Study of human beings- ITS TOO GENERAL therefore, it is the science of human culture and biological variation and evolution --Most imp has emphasis on biology and culture, and their interaction --Human beings are not solely biological or cultural ( when they interact they influence each other) --Biocultural Approach: --Holistic= we consider all other aspects of human existence…look into religion, economic aspect etc..u look at everything --Natural and social science= combination of both ( biology and culture= both are equally imp and how they interact and influence each) Subfields: Cultural anthro:- study of cultural behavioural, present and recent past of human populationsocial customs, beliefs etc its holistic aspect Archaeology: study cultural behaviour of human populations Lingusitics= involves study of human language and relationship btw language and culture and the culture of the non- literate people th **Biological Anthro= in early 20 century it was also known as physical anthropology- so u looked at physical variation among humans…etc now with genetics techniques now its all biological we study biological with present and past…human evolution, how like or dislike human pop are..the variation btw them etc..the diversity ( we answer all these questions) What is Evolution: Evolution is change in living organism through time -central unifying theme in biology -interested in both biological and cultural evolution --eg. Evolution of skin color (bio), different marriage practices ( cult) so we can observe many aspects of our species Pre-Darwin Thought: The father of evolution of science - there are other scientist who also contributed to the theory of evolution but Darwin is known as the father of them all Carolus Linneaeus: he first one to come with formal classification of all the living organisms etc…based on common traits he grouped them into meaningful groups…classifying these groups are called taxonomy - he gave specific names to each and specifc organisms ( he gave scientific names) species: group of organisms that can interbreed these species that can adapt are known as genus Georges Cuvier: put forth the hypothesis of catastrophism - in the planets there were a series of catastrophism…main idea was not all individuals born today survive and reproduce…many of them die and a few survive are able to adapt and reproduce Jean-Baptiste Lamarck: inheritance of acquired traits: any traits that was acquired was later .. the long neck of the girraf…their necks had short necks they had to feed on the trees and therefore their neck elongated…the acquired trait was later on passed onto 3 generation ( that was his hypothesis) Thomas Malthus: human pop can grow geometrically while resources grow addictively…so how do they compensate? - because of mind, disease, poverty…not all individuals that are born survive and reproduce most of them die and a few survive and reproduce and move onto the next generation and thids is how they balance each other (SIMILAR TO GEORGES This main concept Darwin and Malthus used. Charles Darwin: naturalist- travelled in ships collected lots of plants and animals - surprised because he found a lot of variation in each and every organisms ( and even within the same species) noticed that living organisms were well adapted to their env (eg. Cold env= animals had fur) birds had to find insects in tree trunk had long beaks depending on env organisms were well adapted = MAIN OBSERVATION Differential survival and reproduction: not all organisms survive and reproduce…there are some specific traits that help or enhance their survival in reproduction eg. Insects deep within tree trunk ( over a period of time, birds with long beak only they survive and reproduced) so based on the environment organisms varied in how they adapted.. EVOLUTION BY NATURAL SELECTION: the nature selects which organisms survive and move onto the next generation: nature plays a very imp role, which will move all and which will remain. combined all his findings in his book Alfred Russel Walalce: also talked about evolution by natural selec
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