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Lecture 23 - Strepsirhini and Tarsiers

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Esteban Parra

ANT203Y5 – BiologicalAnthropology Lecture 23 – January 28, 2014 Strepsirhini and Tarsiers Traditional Classification - Prosimii is a polyphyletic grouping - Anthropoidea is a paraphyletic grouping Phylogenetic Reconstruction - All monophyletic groupings Taxonomy of the Suborder Strepsirhini - Lemuriformes lives inAfrica ANT203Y5 – BiologicalAnthropology Lecture 23 – January 28, 2014 Main Characteristics of the Suborder Strepsirhini - Primitive traits. o Moist, naked rhinarium with upper lip attached internally o Unfused mandible o Placenta is simple, diffuse, and nondeciduate - Derived traits. o Grooming claw on second pedal digit o Incisors and canines of the lower jaw form a “grooming” comb (except in the Indriidae and Daubentonia) o Generally large eyes, and always a “tapetum lucidum” behind the retina, indicating nocturnal adaptation - Gray bamboo lemur o Huge eyes (tapetum lucidum) Strepsirhini Hand (Left) and Foot (Right, Showing the “Grooming Claw”) - Aye-aye are highly endangered and highly unique having a long middle finger for eating Dental Comb - They use part of the comb for grooming - Premolars have adapted more or less into the morphology of a canine Superfamily Lemuroidea (Lemurs) - Lemurs are restricted to the island of Madagascar, off the coast of EastAfrica. - Let’s review the history of this fascinating island…. Geologic History of Madagascar - Madagascar separated fromAfrica more than 120 million years ago, before the evolution of most modern groups of mammals. o Many species living in Madagascar are seen no where - It is believed that, after the separation of Madagascar fromAfrica, a small number of mammals made it to the island, probably “rafting” on floating mats of vegetation. Among these mammals were the ancestors of Lemurs… o MoreAbout Madagascar - 80% of Malagasy plants and animals are not found anywhere else in the world. - Lemurs found many empty niches to exploit, and there was a remarkable adaptive radiation, that gave rise to the large number of species found today in the island (although many of them are endangered). - Anthropoids, which otherwise would have been competing with lemurs for resources, never made it to Madagascar. - Here are some examples of Malagasy Lemurs. DaubentoniidaeAye-Aye - Aye-ayes are very unique due to their chisel teeth (1013/1003) and long middle finger, which they use for feeding - They are nocturnal and occupy a woodpecker niche, eating wood-boring larvae. ANT203Y5 – BiologicalAnthropology Lecture 23 – January 28, 2014 - Aye-ayes are the most endangered mammals of Madagascar Indriidae - This family includes 3 living genera: Indri, Propithecus (Sifakas), andAvahi (woolly lemurs) and 12 species. DF 2123/2023 - They have long, strong hind limbs, characteristic of leapers. Their locomotion is termed “clinging and leaping”. On the ground, they stand upright, and usually progress by short lips or hoops. - They are folivorous (eating leaves, buds, fruits, nuts, bark and flowers). - Avahi are nocturnal, indri and sifakas diurnal Some Members of the Indriidae family - Indri - Sifaka - Avahi or wooly lemur Lemuridae (True Lemurs) - The family Lemuridae includes 4 genera (Lemur, Eulemur, Varecia and Hapalemur) and 10 species. It comprises species showing a wide range of adaptations in terms of diet and habitat. Some species are frugivorous, some folivorous, some include insect in their diets, and Hapalemur feeds on bamboo. DF 2133/2133 - They are mostly diurnal.All lemurs are at least partly arboreal, but some spend plenty of time on the ground (e.g. Lemur catta) Lepilemuridae (Sportive Lemurs - This family (also known as Megalapidae) has only one genus, Lepilemur with 7 species. - They are strictly nocturnal and folivorous. - Lepilemur adults lose uppe
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