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ANT 205 - December 2nd, 2013.doc

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Carolan Wood

Cause/Manner & Mode of Death // • The Coroner/Medical Examiner is the ultimate authority of “Cause/Manner & Mode of Death” however when there is no soft tissue available a Forensic Anthropologist will be consulted Cause of death refers to the disease or injury Manner of death refers to the type of death including: homicide, suicide, accident, natural causes and undetermined Mode of death is the method by which death occurs: i.e – shooting, strangling Pathologist Authority – is required to describe the soft tissue changes to vital centres like the heart and brain. Cause of death is left to the PATHOLOGISTS Forensic Anthropologists look at many fatal injuries that do not affect the bone and massive bone injuries that have no death involved? Cause of death involves the F.A providing info to assist the determination of cause of death. Identifying, describing, recording bone trauma or looking at angles of entry, direction & force of blows OR analyzing patterns & timing of events that are AM versus PM Types of Injury • electrical injury • firearms • asphyxiation • drowning • fracturing – discontinuity, this can be causes by blunt trauma/impact or sharp trauma such as an incised wound, a stab wound or a chop wound • burns Fracture – Blunt Trauma • Usually directed at the head • Can occur due to punching, kicking and hitting • This can also occur without the use of an instrument • Concentric Fractures - a fracture in circles are clear indicators of Blunt Trauma • Radiating Fractures – radiate out from the point of a fracture, are also clear indicators of Blunt Trauma • Inbending fracture – • Hinge fracture • Fragmentation can occur through blunt trauma Fracture – Sharp Trauma • this type of trauma usualy occurs with an edged instrument • Kerf – a groove made by the cutting tool • Kerf Floor – the point at which the cut terminates *The sharpest point of a tool* • Penetrating refers to ENTERING THE STRUCTURE • Perforating wound or injury is something that passes all the way through a structure • Incised wound – involves cuts or slashes - this type of wound will always be longer than it is deep - it will show up on more on the ribs, face, forearms, hands • Stab wound – is often pointed and deeper than it is wide • Characteristics of the Instrument: - shape of the blade, single/double edged blade or length of the blade The manner and the angle of the attack is dependent on the area of the body involved • Chop wound – a deep or gaping wound - chop wounds involve heavy instruments (Axe, cleaver) - the entry for the wound on BONE will be of and from a smooth flat surface - the opposing angle for the chop wound will be rough and have a chunk missing - A cleaver will often produce a KER FLOOR - An AXE will create fragmentation Firearms • these differ from blunt or sharp trauma mainly because of the entrance or exit wounds • Entrance wounds with firearms will look sharp edge and will be beveled internally • Angled entry from a bullet wound will create: beveling or the the
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