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ANT205 - Sept 12 (Intro and Scope of Forensic Anthropology).docx

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Carolan Wood

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Intro and Scope of Forensic Science - Dignity and respect o Why study the dead? o Learn from the dead and protect the living  Dignity of the dead  Feelings of the living o Sudden death or missing family member  Loved ones are being treated respectfully  Someone cares  Who they once were o Be sensitive o Everyone was someone’s mother/father, brother/sister, child, etc; - What do forensic scientists do and how do you become one? o Forensic sciences  Any discipline whose members apply knowledge and skill in legal context o Crime lab scientists  Biologists, chemists o RCMP crime labs o CFS (Centre for Forensic Sciences)  Toronto and Sault Ste. Marie o OPP o Consultants  Anthropologists, entomologists, odontologists, pathologists, psychologists, accountants, computer scientists o Forensic investigators  IDENT offices: process scene, collect evidence, fingerprint experts, blood splatter analysis, knot specialist - TV portrayals o Unrealistic  Investigate scene, conduct autopsy, interview suspects, direct investigation, technology does not exist o Forensic sciences  Many subfields  Biology, chemistry, anthropology, pathology, entomology, IDENT and policing - Canada o No criminalists  Henry Lee (O.J case)  Process and investigate scene o Team on scene (not just one person doing everything) o Coroner/medical examiner  Who, how, when, what, where  Custody of body o Police – responsible for scene o General investigation section (GIS)  Support, allow access to certain parts of scene o Major/serious crime – investigate o Identification offices (IDENT)  Photographs, video, fingerprint, trace and biological evidence, decide what’s important to seize and keep and what’s not o Forensic anthropologist o Forensic entomologist (collect insect evidence) - Crime lab scientists o Degree in field of expertise (BSc or BA)  Biology (hair/DNA)  Chemistry (fibre/substance)  Physics/chemistry/anthropology (tool marks/firearms) o Special in-house training o Understudy/mentor  Cannot work cases alone  Regular testing  Mock trials  Entry level = technician  Pass tests = scientist - Consulting experts o Highest degree in their field  PhD or MD, etc; o Forensic research o Regular casework o Publishes peer reviewed journals o Teaches subject o Relevant associations  AAFS (American Association of Forensic Science), CSFS (Canadian Society of Forensic Science), CAPA (Canadian Association of Physical Anthropology), CAA (Canadian Association of Archaeology)  Sometimes Board certified - Forensic anthropologists o Search for o Recover o Analyze o Human remains  Skeletonized  Badly decomposed o Biological profile  Age, sex, ancestry o Identifying traits o Trauma analysis o Post-mortem damage - Forensic odontologists o Bite mark evidence  identify perpetrator o dentition/dental work  identify victim - forensic psychologist o examine defendant  mental state  understanding behaviour patterns  ex. serial killers  assist police in determining strategies for interviewing suspects - forensic pathologists o autopsy for deceased o medical doctors who specializes in forensic pathology o determine cause of death o identifying traits  tattoos, scars, etc; o collect evidence from body  fingernail scrapings  foreign hair - forensic entomologists o insect evidence  estimated time of death  wounds  drugs - other specialists o special circumstances that may require civilian assistance  Pickton Pig Farm o Largest serial killer investigation in Canadian history o 14 acre site o 68 missing women from East Vancouver o Scene investigation from Feb 2002 to Nov 2003 o Excavated to sterile  Large machinery  Trained operators  Accurate and safe  Contractor o Anthropology techs to search the dirt o Pickton charged with 27 counts of homicide - Ontario Coroner’s system o Ministry of community safety and correctional services  Policing services  Correctional services  Public safety and security o Public safety  Fire marshal  Office of the chief coroner  CFS o Public security  Emergency management o Office of the chief coroner  Enforce the coroner’s act (motto: we speak for th
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