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ANT205 - Nov 28 (Manner and Mode of Death).docx

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Carolan Wood

Cause/Manner & Mode of Death (Trauma Analysis) - Cause, Manner & Mode of Death o Coroner/medical examiner o Cause – disease or injury  death o Must have soft tissue to determine manner of death definitively o Manner – type of death  Homicide, suicide, accident, natural causes, undetermined, death by misadventure o Mode – method by which death occurs  Shooting, strangling, etc; - Cause of death o Pathologist – authority  Describe soft tissue changes to vital centres  Heart, brain  Precipitated death o Anthropologists  Many fatal injuries do not affect bone  Massive bone injuries – no death  Leave cause to pathologists  Provide info to assist the determination of cause o Identify, describe, record bone trauma o Angles of entry, direction and force of blows o Patterns and timing of events, AM vs PM o Healed vs unhealed - Types of injury o Electrical injuries o Firearms o Asphyxiation (drowning = asphyxiation by water) o Fracture – discontinuity  Blunt trauma/impact  Sharp trauma  Incised  Stab  Chop o Burns - Fracture – blunt trauma o Usually directed at the head; main target for interpersonal violence o Punching, kicking, hitting o With or without instrument o Also from falling o Concentric fracture (circular or arcs) o Radiating fractures o Inbending o Suture as a buffer, where it may prevent continuous fracture lines on both sides, unless it was a really hard impact o Fragmentation - Fracture – sharp trauma o Edged instrument o Kerf  Groove made by cutting tool o Kerf floor  Point at which cut terminates (bottom tip) o Penetrating  Enter structure which goes for soft tissue or bones o Perforating  Pass all the way through o Incised – cuts/slashes  Ribs, face, forearms, hands  May not necessary get a kerf, depends on how deep  Longer than they are deep o Stab – sharp points  Deeper than it is wide o Characteristic of instrument  Shape of blade  Single/double edged  Length of blade o Manner, angle of attack  Angle is impo rtant because it can rule out suicidal or accidental o Area of body involved o Chop – deep, gaping  Heavy instrument  Machete, cleaver, axe, etc;  Entry  Smooth flat cut surface  Opposing angle  Rough, chunk missing  Cleaver = kerf floor produced  Axe = fragmentation/perforated - Burns o High temperature o Corrosive agents o Friction - Electrical injuries o Lightnin
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