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lect 4 notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Gary Crawford

Lecture 4 Jan 23, 2014 • The mandible was actually from an orangutan • Scientists should have caught the Piltdown hoax • In the face of the evidence that some scientists were arguing that it was actually a human skull attached to an ape mandible • Generally, we think that Dawson did it, after he died not much happened after it, the rule 3: didn’t entirely apply to him, he didn’t have a chance to make mistakes • But the Piltdown hoax got stuck in history for 4 decades, lasted so long! • He did make a mistake by planting the second finding fragments at the same site • Fujimura was violating rule 2: don’t be too successful • Michael Shermer’s book about the brain and looks at issues regarding why we believe what we believe • Move from cunning hoaxes, where people did calculated deceits, to pure archaeology • From Europe people were very naïve • Who discovered Americas? • Tried sailing across, since the earth is round and get to china, but something got in the way: America • The situation at first contact • Clovis culture • How would you test the hypothesis that Asians crossed the old world via a land connection? • Were original settlers diverse? • Feder stresses the point of Columbus in Caribbean in 1492 • John Cabot looking for economic gain • European traffic in north Atlantic not just in the Caribbean • Native north Americans are called Indians for a reason: mistake made in recognizing them • Cabot’s voyage • 1507: first detailed map of th world that includes the Americas • Waldsmuller made this map and knew at that time that there was another ocean: Pacific ocean • Two red dots” bay settlements • Red bay: one of the most significant under water site • The Inuit were being attracted to the settlement because they were able obtain american goods • How were into the interior were the tools made that were being brought from Europe? • Auger site, Ontario: by 1600 (no proof that Europeans were actually visiting this place) maybe trading things like tools, iron axe • Documentary: very intriguing • The gist of the story: single iron axe was so rare and odd to these people (l
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