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Lecture 18

Lecture 18

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Alexander Von Gernet

ANT241 Y Lecture 18 – Iroquois move to Canada Iroquoian Language Family (Examples from New York State) Mohawk Oneida Onondaga  Five Nations Iroquois Confederacy Cayuga Seneca  not one of the indigenous people of Canada (but today they are)  we will be tracing the history of these people and the implications on their rights Five nations Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee = people of the longhouse) - MOHAWK - Homelands: where villages are located (horticulturalists mainly) underneath Lake Ontario - But they also hunted in the limits of territory (much bigger) - James Bay (north); King Bridges of Georgia (south) (but they went far and wide for raiding expeditions) Mohawk Move to Canada - after the Iroquois defeated the Huron, there were no natives in the region - many of the Mohawk had adopted Huron captives: helped the Jesuits who tried to convert the Iroqouis down south because Huron were already exposed to them - thus, there were many Mohawk who became Christians (both new Mohawk who were previously exposed to Christianity as Huron, and old Mohawk who weren’t exposed)  this resulted in factionalism; the traditionalists vs. the Christians - the Christians broke off and isolated themselves: came to be known as “praying indians” (associated themselves with the French); whereas the traditionalists associated with their allies, the British - Factionalism among the Iroqouis was exacerbated by the factionalisms between the Roman Catholic Francophiles against the Protestant British  in 1667: some of the Christian Mohawk left their homeland and went up North to Montreal where the French had established its colony. They went to a place near Montreal called: Kahnawake (still built longhouses but in a linear form, not scattered, and with churches)  in 1672: Kanesatake (Oka), a place near Montreal (a different group of Iroquois came here)  in 1707: French vs. English had a war (the Montreal Mohawks would be allied with the French and go down south and fight their brethren who allied with the English) - in 1707, some Mohawk warriors from Kahnawake raided a town called Groton in Massachusetts - some boys from the Tarbell family were captured by the natives and brought back to Kahnawake - Another faction occurred between the Tarbell family and other people  1755 moved from Kahnawaketo St. Regis (Jesuits called it), Mohawk called it (Akwesasne: “where the partridge drums”) - upstream from Montreal along St. Lawrence River - now 3 communities Kahnawke, Kanesatake, and Akwesasne Mohawk move to Canada  American Revolution (1775 – 1783) - Mohawk sided with British (on both sides against the American, in defense of Canada) - the Mohawk lost: the traditiona
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