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ANT313 (Nov 1) - Erlitou & Shang.docx

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Gary Crawford

ANT313 - Archaeology style (Archaeology antiquity style...or Anthropological style) consistent - Social complexity in China o Erlitou (Xia) and Shang - Readings o Liu, Li Ch.8 o Shao, W: the formation of civilization  Chinese perspective - Erlitou and Shang o No evolution of bronze technology, but it just appears  Don’t know if introduced from outside or happened indigenously o Taking place in China, Korea then Japan  Korea and Japan may owe much of their development from China - According to Liu and Chen (2012): 4 intertwined issues o State formation o Development of urbanism o Emergence of civilization o Beginning of dynastic history o E.g. urbanization+state=civilization (Shao 2005)  Civilized vs uncivilized is a subjective term and how to determine what is what  “being civil” is being interchangeable for urbanization and this shouldn’t be right - Chinese approaches o Classic evolutionary (influenced by V.G. Childe); little emphasis on texts o Neolithic civilization: not specifically state origins; rather it examines sociopolitical complexity in the Neolithic o Historiography: linking legendary sages, kings and dynasties to particular sites (linked to nationalism and national history) o Social archaeology - Erlitou Period o Centrist perspective o Longshan was demise and left with Yueshi - Early Shang o Erligang o Regionalism is still there, but the political sphere expanded o Symbolism is different in various regions but they’re using the same copper - Middle Shang - How did intensification and centralization occur? o Accumulation of products went beyond what was needed for survival o Stimulated desire for wealth and power o Frequency of warfare increased o Conflict between social groups led to settlement change; constant violent struggles o New social order based on coercion? o Society developed through class struggles - Elman service (1975) on state origins o Discussed Shang dynasty and contrasts views with those that involve coercion  Intervillage networks (chiefdoms: hereditary based; beliefs)  Hereditary theocracy characterized by ramage system  Highly bureaucratized planning and redistribution  Success in redistributive pr
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