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ANT313 (Oct 30) - Chinese Late Neolithic (Longshan).docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Gary Crawford

ANT313 Lecture - Liangchengzhen (view to North) - Contextual analysis - Liangchengzhen excavated area o 634 samples from most contexts, and mainly middle Longshan layers - Sampling o Looking at agricultural redistribution o Could there be marketing of rice and redistribution? o Structures that were or were not households? o Some may be specialists and some not - Regional survey and the development of complex societies in southeastern Shangdong, China - Survey on Liangchengzhen o Lots of money to do survey and huge initiative o Difficult to get permit to excavate but easy to get permit to survey o Getting field crew and walk across the field to find artifacts and core into the ground o No sampling involved, just walked the whole area o Sites of various sizes o Method: full survey o Method is more assumed than tested o Results: first to document settlement hierarchy; not simply widely dispersed walled towns o Later and earlier settlement patterns differ significantly from Longshan pattern o Considerable interaction among the sites o Only 4 sites are Dawenkou (immediately pre-Longshan) - Longshan hierarchy - Chronology o Western Zhou 1046-771 BC o Shang 1600 – 1046 BC o Erlitou (Xia?) 1900-1500 BC o Longshan: 2600-1900 BC - Intensive agriculture? o Chiefdoms and states have intensive resource production: what’s the evidence in China (Shandong Province in particular)? - Assumptions before we began research: o Longshan agriculture was highly productive  Sophisticated agriculture: more productive than predecessors o Longshan agriculture was highly productive;  Shao: “archaeological evidence for this socioeconomic development is apparent in a steady increase in the sophistication and level of agricultural production (cereal, rice, and so forth)  Longshan agriculture seems to have been more productive, and possibly more specialized than that of Dawenkou, the longshan predecessor  What’s the evidence? - Shantaisi o Survey o Excavated around the temple and see the Stratigraphy of the site o It’s a temple because of the archaeology; local people able to express their beliefs in terms of architecture; they think their ancestors are here so they build a temple to take care of their ancestors and honour them o Dark stuff on the bottom of structure o Bottom right is cattle pictures and deer; sacrifice because the bones were not disarticulated  No further analysis could be done because the pit was reburied by workers -
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