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Lecture 2

Aiello & Dean 2006 Week 2 Readings

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Sherry Fukuzawa

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NotesFromReadingAIELLOLCDEAN2006THEHOMINOIDARMPP342354The Hominoid ArmThe upper limbs of humans and apes are much more similar to each other than are the lower limbs This is largely because biped locomotion has resulted in greater anatomical changes in the lower limbs than in the upper limbs Humans and apes share shoulder joints that are located on the back shoulder joints that are located on the back of the rib cage rather than at its sides and have a far greater range of upper limb mobilityHumans and apes also share elbow joints that have a larger range of extension than the majority of the monkeys and the wrist joints that are more mobile in the sense that the hand can be adducted to a greater extentThe entire upper limb in humans and apes is capable of a greater range of movement than is found in most monkeys and particularly greater than is found in the monkeys of the Old World The arms are used fully extended above the head to suspend and propel the animal through the trees These primates are known as true brachiatorsGorillas chimpanzees and orangutans are modified brachiatorsthese primates are capable of using their upper limbs above their heads in locomotion but they do use their lower limbs to a greater or lesser extent to provide support for the body from belowSemiBrachiators are monkeys rather than apes that are essentially quadrupeds but use their upper limbs above their heads to a greater extent than do purely quadrupedal monkeys The Old World semibrachiators are the colobine monkeys of Africa and Asia that use their forelimbs in association with the hindlimbs to check their momentum after leapingThe New World semibrachiators are the spider monkeys Ateles woolly monkeys Brachyteles Lagothrix and howler mon
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