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November 14th 2012 - Lecture Notes.docx

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John Lester

Astronomy Lecture Notes November 14 2012h Monday’s Lecture: - Venus mass + radius are similar to Earth but atmosphere is 96% CO2 and temperatures = 470 K due to being closer to the Sun o No liquid water. - Study of Venus’ surface using radars  volcanoes, larger craters, very few rifts, no continental drift. - Rotation = 243 days  “backwards” Chapter 8 – Jovian Planet (from Monday): - Large masses + diameter  small densities - Composition mostly of Hydrogen and Helium from densities + spectral patterns – cold enough that no element can escape. Interiors of Jovian Planets: - We cant go inside them, but we are beginning to use “seismology “for these planets  only indirect methods: o Composition = hydrogen and helium o Jovian planets all rotate rapidly  causes planet to bulge at their equators. o No observed expansion or contractions.  Outward pressure = weight. - Use a computer: o Use the composition of Hydrogen and Helium o Solve the equation: outward pressure = weight. o Apply observed equation. o Predict the bulge at the equator. o If does not match the observed bulge  adjust the interior by trial and error.  Repeat until predications matches observed bulge. - Results for Jupiter: o Atmosphere is made up of Hydrogen, Helium and H2 and other molecules go to a depth of 10%  7000 km. o “Oceans” compressed liquid H and He depth = another 10% = 7000 km o Liquid metallic H (something we cannot create on Earth) – almost to Jupiter’s center. o Solid core of rock and metal = 10X MEarth - Results of Saturn: o Deeper atmosphere and oceans o Smaller Hydrogen metallic but larger core. - Results of Uranus and Neptune: o
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