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November 19th Lecture Notes.docx

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John Lester

Astronomy Lecture Notes Monday, November 19 2012 th Friday’s Lecture:  Jupiter’s Moon Io: o Brilliant yellow, red, orang, black and white. o No impact craters  resurfaced by constant volcanic eruptions. o Lave is rich in sulfur which changes color with temperature.  Io should have lost its heat but…. o Io orbits Jupiter, very large ass 00> strong tides o In the large family of moon, which interact with each other gravitationally. o Cannot synchronize its spin to its orbit. o Tidal heating continues. Europa:  Slightly smaller than our moon – should be cold  Surface has almost no craters: o Surface must be new.  Surface is water ice with many fractures. o Tidal heating keeps water liquid below the ice. o Crack allow water to flow to the surface and fills in craters. Ganymede:  Largest moon in the solar system… larger than diameter of mercury.  Surface has o Many craters  less resurfacing. o Dark zones with many craters and lighter regions with few craters. o Has different ages  Craters revel water ice below the surface. Callisto:  About the diameter of mercury.  Surface is heavily cratered  Recent craters reveal ice below. Lessons from the Galilean Moons: - As distances from Jupiter increase:  Surfaces have become more heavily cratered  Jupiter’s gravity becomes weaker  Less tidal stretching make satellites cooler and less active  less resurfacing. Tidal Heating (Europa) keeps water liquid even though sunlight = very faint.  Life might be possible far from the Sun. Titan – Saturn’s Large Moon:  Like a planet: Astronomy Lecture Notes Monday, November 19 2012th o Diameter = larger than mercury. o Mass = 40% of Mercury’s. o Has an atmosphere.  90% N2 – recall Earth’s atmosphere
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