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AST101-Chapter 8.txt

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University of Toronto Mississauga
John Lester

Chapter 8 Jovian Planet SystemsReview of Physical Properties1 The jovian planets share these physical properties from Ch 61 large masses145 to 318 x mass of earth2 large diameters388 to 112 x diameter of earth3 large volumes D358 to 1400 x volume of earth4 small average densitiesmassvolumefrom 071 to 167 gcm3 similar to water1 gcm35 very different from the rock and metal of EarthComposition of the Jovian Planets1 Low densities require the lightest elements1 lightest element is hydrogennucleus has only 1 proton2 second lightest element is heliumnucleus has 2 electrons and 2 neutrons3 conclusion the jovian planets are 99 by count hydrogenhelium4 this is like the Suns compositionObserved Compositions1 Sunlight reflects from the jovian planets and come to Earth2 Gas in the atmosphere absorbs specific wavelengthsKirchhoffs 3rd law p1183 The absorption wavelengths contain the patterns of many hydrogen molecules H2 H20 H3N H4C4 We do not see heliums absorption pattern because helium does not form molecules and helium atoms absorb light only at very high temperaturesWhy is the Composition H and He1 The jovian planets are very cold because they are all far from the Sun2 Intensity of sunlight decreases with distance from the Sun as 1distance23 Jupiter 52 AU gets 15224 of Earths heatingtemp148 C125 K4 Neptune 301 AU gets 1301201 of Earths heatingtemp213 C60 K5 Recall Ch 4 that temperature represents energy of motion of atoms and molecules6 At low temperatures the molecules and atoms move very slowly7 Because of the slow speeds not even the lightest elements with the highest speeds can escape8 Jovian planets hold onto H and Heall others9 HHe are 99 of all matterlarge masses diameters and gravities but low densitiesInteriors of the Jovian Planets1 We cannot go inside these planets and we are just beginning to use seismology for these planetsonly indirect methods
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