BIO152H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Radiometric Dating

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5 Nov 2016
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Lecture 9 Evolution-Central Unifying Concept in Biology
Earth is Ancient and has Evolved
* Geological data show that Earth is 4.6 byo
Pattern of Evolution
* Darwin describes evolution as DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION: change over time
produced modern species from ancestral species
1) Species are related by common ancestory
2) ..?
Extinction
* Many fossils provide evidence for extinct species
* Not all fossils resemble living organisms
* Many extinctions throughout Earths history
Fossil: TRACES OF ORGANISMS THAT LIVED IN THE PAST
-footprints
-bones
-shells
Descent with Modification
* Living species “succeed” fossil species in the same region
Darwin interpreted fossils as evidence that the extinct organisms were related to the current
organisms
Transitional Forms
* Traits that are intermediate between older and younger species
Human Evolution
* Early fossils such as “Lucy” provides evidence that the earliest human ancestors arose in
Africa
* Using radiometric dating, scientists have estimated the age of fossil human ancestors
The V shows are divergence from the chimpanzee
Why are mocking birds that inhabit neighbouring islands superficially similar yet distinct
species?
* Patterns can be explained by evolution or descent with modification Species are found where
….
Developmental Homologies
* Looking at the embryo maybe very different from adult form, gives us a lot of background to
examine similarities and differences
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