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Lecture 1

BIO152H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Pinus Contorta, Ivory Gull, Hexa


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO152H5
Professor
Fiona Rawle
Lecture
1

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CH. 1-3
September 6, 2018
7:46 AM
Ch.1
Why do Giraffes have Long Necks?
Food competition hypothesis argues that long necks evolved with long necks can reach high up to
feed
However feeding is typically done at shoulder height
Sexual Competition hypothesis
Alternative hypothesis states that long necks evolved to allow giraffes to win more fights and
father more offspring
Lodgepole pine
Pine beetle arent being killed by cold weather and infest lodgepole pine
Climate change
Which organisms will thrive and which wont
Typically depends on what can adapt to climate change quickly
Ivory gull in decline in Nunavut from pack ice
Figure 1.27** coat color variation in mouse populations
o Francis Bertody Sumner hypothesis
o Hopi Hoekstra conducted experiment using model mice
Ch. 2
O >> N > C= H
Electronegativity
Ch.3
Water has 4 properties
Cohesive behavior
Ability to moderate temperature
Oil molecules are hydrophobic because they have relatively nonpolar bonds
Giant redwoods, hexa something, 6 copies of chromosome
Etymology
Phago - to eat
Endo - inside
Exo - outside
Ch. 5
Don’t need to memorize 5.14 but know it
Know behavior and how to see mutations
Valine involved in sickle cell anemia
More oxygen in polar amino groups
Circle partial charges on electrically charged acids
What do you think will be the behavior of the different groups of amino acids in water
How do you think it will impact the 3d structure

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5.15
N-terminus at the beginning and carboxyl on the end
Which one correlates to the coding sequence
5.18
Highlight all bonds you see
Pyrimidines vs purines structure
Which type of polymer has the least diversity
Ch. 6
Endomembrane system and organelles
Membranes and osmosis
Freezing is an issue because ice crystals can rupture cell membranes
Some animals can block ice crystal formation
Wood frog
ice triggers freezing
Tissues solidiy
Vascular circulation stops after being flooded with glycogen from liver
Cells deprived of oxygen
Ice forms in extra cellular spaces - water inside is osmotically drawn externally
Freeze tolerance promoted by rapid synthesis of glucose from liver glycogen (glucose enhances
survival of organs tissues cells, acts like an antifreeze)
6.2
6.5
6.6 label the amphipathic
Concept 6.4 focus this
Components of the endomembrane system
6.13
6.15 most notes here
6.16
Ch. 12
Hypo - below
Hyper - above
Iso - equal
Soma - body
Meta - change/turning point
Cyto - cell
Two types of nuclear division occur in many species - figure read it
Meiosis usually produces eggs, sperm
Mitosis produces somatic cells
Most animal species are diploid
in a non dividing cell, chromosomes are a tangled mess in the nucleus
x-shape is duplicated chromosome with two sister chromatids 12.5
12.4 sister chromatids at prometaphase
12.7 note that metaphase is uncondensed, anaphase is condensed
12.15 note the checkpoints
12.16 regulatory proteins

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Cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases (cdks)
12.16b MPF
Cyclin and MPF combine and cyclin degrades while MPF is recycled
ICGC, international cancer genome consortium
12.21
G1 and G2 have dna replication only
Ch. 13
Shift to haploid cells in meiosis
Etymology
Meion - less, decrease
Di - two
Zyg - joined together
Key concepts
Meiosis results in reduction
Genetic variation
Sexual vs asexual reproduction
Cloning is a exact replica
Advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction
Don’t need a partner - quicker
Less resources, time, energy
Disadvantage
Less genetic variation
Very slow evolution
Not immune to disease
13.4
Crossing over occurs in non sister chromatids
Sister chromatids are identical
13.6
Only diploid cells can go through meiosis
Mules cant have offspring
Different number of chromosomes
Horses have 64 donkeys have 62 which makes mules have 63 chromosomes
63 doesn’t divide evenly so it don’t have babies
Liger = male lion female tiger
Ploidy is the same bit DNA content is doubled in interphase
Reduuction in ploidy happens after meisosis 1
After interphase sister chromatids held together by cohesions
13.9 non sister chromatids exchange genetic material
13.10 nondisjunction is example of when errors occur
2^n is how you calculate the number of combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes in
gametes
At what stage are the chromatids completely separated in mitosis and meiosis (anaphase/anaphase II)
Mutations og source of diversity
Create reshuffling of allelles
3 mechanisms of variation
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