BIO152H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Reductionism, Cell Theory, Dependent And Independent Variables

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8 Nov 2015
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Bio: Lecture 1
Properties of Living Organisms:
Order (Cellular Organization)
Metabolism
Homeostasis
Reproduction
Growth and Development
Response to Environment
Evolutionary Adaptation
Complex Biological Systems:
Reductionism: The approach of study where you reduce complex systems into
simpler components ; Advantages: Easier to study
Systems Biology: An approach that focuses on a whole biological system
1. Study interactions among the system’s parts
2. A change in one variable may affect components of the whole system
3. Ultimate Aim: Answer large-scale questions
Themes:
Organisms react with one another and the physical environment
Life requires energy transfer and transformation
Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization; Example:
Teeth
The cell is the organism’s basic unit of structure and function
The continuity of life is based on heritable information
Feedback mechanisms regulate biological system (negative and positive feedback)
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Modern Cell Theory:
All living organism are made up of one or more cells
All cells arise from pre-existing cells
Cell is the basic unit of life
Metabolism occurs in cells
Cells contain hereditary information
Cells are the fundamental unit of function and structure
Theory of Evolution:
Characteristics of species change over time
Evolution occurs when individuals with certain heritable traits produce more
offspring than individuals lacking these traits
Unity and diversity (Diverse organisms have similar traits that unite them) (flying
among birds)
Natural Selection:
Darwin proposed that all species are related by descent from a common ancestor
Descent with modification
Nature or the environment selects for certain traits among naturally occurring
variable traits in population
Example: Darwin’s Finches
Classification:
Provide unique names for organisms
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Help reconstruct evolutionary pathways
Enable interpretation or origins and history
Predictive power
Binomial Nomenclature:
Unique two-part scientific name consistent of the genus and species
Latin
Taxonomy: Classifying organisms
1. A two-kingdom system – Linnaeus: Plants and Animals
2. A five-kingdom system: Whittaker: Monera, Protista, fungi, plants, and animals
3. A six kingdom system: Woese: Bacteria, Archaea, Protista, fungi, plants, and
animals
4. The Three-domain system: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Differentiating:
Comparative anatomy
Chromosome structure
Developmental stages
Molecular traits
Amino acid and DNA sequencing
Behavioral traits
DNA provides a means of testing evolutionary hypotheses
Science is a way of knowing/acquiring knowledge and seeks natural causes for natural
phenomenon.
Biology test ideas about how natural world works by evaluating predictions made
by hypotheses
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