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15 Dec 2010
School
Department
Course
Professor
Lecture 2
Slide 4: Behaviour
Narrow Definition:
Response to a stimulus
Stimulus may be another animal or some aspect of the environment
Broad Definition:
decisions made by organisms
Slide 5: Behaviour
Mates
Offspring
Members of the same species
Members of different species
Food sources; predators, prey
Slide 3: Why do animals behave in certain ways? Behaviours have costs and benefits
Trade Offs:
Resources have to be divided between survival and reproduction
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Cost-benefit analysis:
Benefits: net gain in energy, increase in reproduction success
Costs: injury, shortage of shelter, parasites, capture by predator
Slide 5: Explaining behaviour
Females picking males from different packs = direct fitness benefit to female because if the males
do not know, they will not kill the youngsters from the adjacent pack?
Promiscuity
Slide 6: Territorial defence
good food sources
materials
mates
a territory in a good location means you are going to do well
humming birds defend territories with a constant number of flowers ( optimal)
Slide 2: Territorial Defence
Costs:
time, energy, risk of injury
increase with territory size
Benefits
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Document Summary

Stimulus may be another animal or some aspect of the environment. resources have to be divided between survival and reproduction www. notesolution. com. benefits: net gain in energy, increase in reproduction success. costs: injury, shortage of shelter, parasites, capture by predator. mates a territory in a good location means you are going to do well humming birds defend territories with a constant number of flowers ( optimal) Costs: time, energy, risk of injury increase with territory size. Benefits www. notesolution. com access to food, nesting sites, refuges, mates. Optimal territory size = maximum number of benefits cost. Slide 1: predation risk in guppy school predators attack large schools more frequently small groups are easier targets therefore should stay in large groups. Slide 4: kin selection: is the natural selection that acts through benefits to relatives. Slide 5: female squirrels call out more than males- call frequency increases with relatedness.

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