BIO205H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Water Pollution, Scientific Method, Natural Experiment
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BIO205 Lecture #2 09/11/2014
Slide #3: What was Ecology in that Example?
•!Interactions between organisms.
•!Study of ecosystems or larger context.
Slide #4: Ecology (Defintion)
•!Two components : abiotic environment & biotic environment
o!Water pollution (abiotic)
o!Climate change (abiotic)
•!Interactions between organisms, biotic & abiotic factors.
•!Clicker Question: The definition of ecology involves studying the …
o!Abundance and distribution of organisms in relation to other organisms and
Slide #5-7: Ecological systems are hierarchal
•!Scale is temporal and spatial
•!Wider temporal scale and larger spatial scale.
Slide #8: Ecologists use the scientific method
•!3 different approaches to test
o!Manipulative ! play around with variables
o!Natural ! use the agent that exist in nature to help make comparisons.
o!Mathematical models !
•!If test fails, ecologists have to go back and test different factors.
•!Hard to publish negative findings.
Slide #9: Dr. Kotanen
•!Enemy release hypothesis : if you take a plant which can do so well here because it
doesn’t have to fight against parasites and other biotic factors in its native place of origin.
•!If conducted this study as a manipulative experiment ! can introduce pathogens, isolate
them in growth chambers, with different effects; hot, cold etc…
•!They used a natural experiment they followed plants that were actually in nature rather
than bringing them in a lab and have narrow conditions of a growth chamber.
•!Dynamic process; using different approaches that influence each other.
Slide #12: What is/are the big differences?
•!First one is much more linear and straight forward, but the second is much more dynamic
and complex and interconnected.
•!The second has much more factors that influence the process which are clearly shown.
Slide #13: What do these models have in common?
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