BIO206H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Aminoacyl Trna Synthetase, World Federation Of Trade Unions, 18S Ribosomal Rna

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31 Oct 2015
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BIO206 Lecture 15 October, 2014-10-15
Glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase
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Ribosomes
- site where protein synthesis occurs
- in liver there are millions of ribosomes per cell
Ribosome Location
- subunit pool in cytoplasm
- assembly with mRNA
- remain free in cytosol if not in “use”
- after translation dissociate and return to pool
- ribosome bind to 5’ end
- all they do is catalyze a single peptide bond
- polysomes: multiple ribosome in one location synthesising multiple proteins
Ribosome composition
- synthesis in 3 steps
- synthesis of proteins and rRNA
- rRNA and proteins assemble to
subunits
- subunits assemble to form
ribosome complex
- they are very large complexes
- large subunit has 49 proteins
associated with it and 3 distinct
RNA molecules
- small subunit has 33 proteins
associated with it and only has 1
RNA molecule
-
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
Ribosomes
- eukaryotic ribosome
are so much more
complicated
- they do a lot more
proof reading and
ensure accuracy
- S stands for stedburg
units  they are non
additive and non
multiplicative
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- Prokaryotic RNA has 30S and 50S
ribosome subunit
- Eukaryotic has 40 and 60 ribosome
subunit
Svedberg Unit – S
- sedmentation rate: provides a measure of
how fast a particle of a given mass, size,
and shape settles when subjected to a
centrifugal force
- UNITS: Seconds-1 (1S = 10-13 seconds
=100fs)
- Svedberg unit is nonlinear, non-additive and non-multiplicative function!!!
- 60s + 40S DOESN’T equal 100s
- Measured empirically – no direct correspondence to the number of nucleotides
- mitochondria and chloroplast in EUKARYOTICS have 70s ribosome
reinforcing endo prokaryotic feeding which developed mitochondria and
chloroplast
- - RIBOSOME is catalytic
center for protein
synthesis
Ribosome Structure
3 tRNA-binding sites
involved in translation
A-Site: acceptor site
aminoacyl tRNA
P-site: peptidyl tRNA
E-site: exit site
EF-Tu site: green
EF-G site: gred
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