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Bio205 Lecture 8 cont’d
14.10 – Animal prey have evolved..:
-Behaviour: works in kin selection
-Group living: young are protected in the middle and less attack on vulnerable prey
-Cicadas: predation occurs much later then coming out of the ground, it provides advantage
as predator response is later then emergence of cicadas
-Predator satiation: Most of the offspring are produced in a short period of time
14.11 Predators have evolved efficient hunting tactics:
-stalking: search time takes longer as u have to follow ur prey
-pursuit: takes less time because it takes less time to follow and look for prey
-predators may use camouflage as a way to lure prey
-May also mimic the prey species (bumblebee)
-Reduce energy of plants because its lost its parts (roots and leaves etc)
-Make the plant vulnerable to diseases.
14.13 Plants have evolved..:
-secondary compounds: makes the leaves taste bad or toxic so deter herbivore but some
herbivores have adapted to break down those toxic compounds.
-Natural selection: evolves by increasing the chances of survival of the individuals in
which they are found
-Adaptation: is a genetic change that occurs over generations in response to natural
Parasitism: Relationship between different species
15.1-parasites draw resources from host organism:
-Co-evolutionary arms race – egg mimicry, egg ejection
-e.g. mosquitoes and blood feeding bats
-Hemi parasitic: plants photosynthesize and contain chlorophyll (i.e. mistletoe)
-Holoparasitic: plants are nonphotosynthetic (i.e. dodder, broomrape)
-completely dependent on host for survival
-Ectoparasites: -on roots, steam, leaves
-Endoparasites: penetrate roots, bark, etc.
15.4-Transmission between hosts can
-Vectors also transmit parasites among plants: Dutch elm disease, mistletoe
-Grooming or greening by mammals and birds.