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Jan. 13 lecture Notes

Course Code
Glenn Morris

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3 skeleton forms
1. Hydrostatic: Fluid based skeletons
2. endoskeleton: bones with muscles on the outside
3. exoskeleton: chain of hollow tubes with muscles on the inside
*Translocation of forces
-Coelom: Fluid Filled cavity, space in the mesoderm. Functionally in earthwor ms it acts as a hydrostatic
skeleton and translocates forces (for example betwe e n longitudinal and circular muscles)
-insect legs are like chain of hollow tubes. Half moon membrane connects half membrane leg segments
-Endoskeleton and A frog jump: the hind limbs are adapted to jump by extending the legs fully from a
recoiled position. Struc ture: the bones are folded in the hind leg.
-Gastronomists: the main muscle in the leg for a frog to jump
3 wor m phyla:
1. Segmented wor ms: includes Christmas tree wor ms: look nothing like earthwor ms. Filter feeding
mechanism. Giant neuron and pullback reaction just like earthwor ms
2. Flatworms: 2 ways of movement
1. Cilia
2. Swimming: by making body waves
3. Nematodes (round worms)
-earthwor ms has a giant neuron used as an emergency reaction system. Conducts very fast.
- terrestrial living is a specialization and adaptation of the earthwor m
-forelimbs of the frog is used to reduce kinetic energy of frog after the jump without breaking anyt hing
(also helped by the cartilage in their chest that absorbs some of the shock)
-leeches segmented works
-circular and longitudinal muscles are antagonists
-earthwor ms use peristaltic waves
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