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Lecture 2

BIO325H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Centroid, Bivalvia, Scallop

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Glenn Morris

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Lecture 2 BIO325
Funcon vs Eect
Evolved funcon: a part that evolved to foster survival or reportucon
Eect: a by-product of a characterisc
Structural adapon: used to an end of increased tness
oStructural eect: with no history to a specied tness goal
Anthocyanins (trees that turn red in fall)
oHelp with protected the leaves (sunscreen)
oA%ract pollinators
oThese are structural adaptaon
oBut the red is not selected for a signal cue (doesn’t mean it is fall)
Its a by-product of dying green chlorophyll
Incidental eects
Mulple systems are coming together to increase *ight tness
oBones, feathers, aerofoil wing shape, a nondal repository system, air sacs
Some things become vesgial and has no consequence to anything (like nipples and shit)
Arthropods have noisy parts since they all hit each other (think of a knight in armor
oThat is an incidental eect not selected for
Ritualizaon: a%racng mates via a process of movements or adpaons
oits been selected for and adapted by the wings
oStridulaon: producon of sound through friconal contact by exoskeleton
Its the part within the head that is above the mandibles
You could say that it’s the skull of the grasshopper
The in*econs of the ectoderm are where the apodemes (arms) come from
All made from chin fusing internally into the body of the tentorium
oWhat it essenally looks like is a truss pic drawn below
The tentorium is used to keep the head stable while the insect chews
oImagine a box with an bo%om and rear (one for the neck and the mandible)
oWithout it, the two free box corners move apart and reduce the squeezing force
oDraw it below
Sclerite evoluon
Prognathous: forward directed mouthparts
Hypognathous: downward eang parts
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