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BIO328H5 Lecture Notes - Jane Goodall, Falsifiability, Intelligent Design

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Darryl Gwynne

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BIO318 Lecture 2 Sept 17
Jane Goodall -> RAWC at 5:30pm Sept 18
Theory and Hypothesis
Evolution according to Darwin: “Descent with modification”
Evolution is really a theory, but there is so much evidence it is considered to be a fact
Hypothesis Testing
Methods used to test hypotheses; experiments, observation and comparisons
o Comparisons in an evolutionary biology sense are very important because they involve
using evolutionary trees
o Become common in the last few decades because now DNA sequencing exists to
compare, also computers that can compute powerful algorithms exist to compute the
data and sort them into robust evolutionary trees
Which is more robust; experiment or comparisons?
o Depends on the situation
Natural Selection
o Intelligent design no role in a biology course
Animal Behaviour
Behaviour broken down in 4 different ways
Look at the behaviour you see and think; how is it adaptive?
o How is it beneficial to the survival of that organism
Evolutionary Tree
The colour blobs are using molecular clocks to date the ancestry (molecular analysis)
In theory, evolution is falsifiable
Animal Behaviour Ultimate/Proximate
Have to separate ultimate questions from proximate questions
Proximate and ultimate hypotheses are not alternatives
o May have more than one answer, put them together and see how they fare
o The answers may not always be competitors, but may be a part of the entire answer
o Why do birds fly south? Proximate: It gets colder and there’s less food, Ultimate: You’re
going to survive better if you go south
Understand this part of tests
Suicide lemmings would make useless offspring more lemmings that would commit suicide
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