BIO342H5 Lecture Notes - Juicer, Pyrethroid, Insecticide

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30 Jan 2013
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BIO342 Evolutionary Biology Lecture 1
Evolution is a change in the frequency of an allele or genotype through time within a
population
allele - a unique copy of a gene
genotype - individuals that share th same set of alles at one more loci
population - group of interbreeding individuals
population is the unit of evolution
individuals cannot evolve
Phenotypic evolution
when a change in the frequency of alleles cause a change in the distribution of
phenotypic traits within a population we call this phenotypic evolution
a phenotypic trait is any characteristic of an organism i.e. Hair/eye colour,
height, weight, size, behaviour, physiological response, etc.
What is Evolutionary Biology?
evolutionary biology - scientific discipline that tests hypotheses proposed to
explain evolutionary processes and patterns associated with organic evolution
(i.e. the evolution of life)
Why is evolutionary biology important?
evolution explains the history and diversity of all life on earth
4.6 billion years ago, earth started as molten soup, no life at all
in the 1st billion years, earth cooled
as water appeared (by 4 bya) first signs of life appeared, molecules that self
replicated - amino acids
amino acids gave rise to more complex life, similar to RNA
self replicate and make copies of itself
more resistant to changes in the environment
single common ancestor (4 bya) gave rise to all the organisms you see on earth
today
Climate change: can populations adapt?
changing precipitation and atmosphere on earth
industrial evolution, manufacturing
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