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Lecture 1

BIO152H5 Lecture 1: Lab 1 - Diversity and Adaptation

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Maria Arts

BIO152 Hadia Saeed Lab 1 – Arthropod Diversity & Adaptation • All living forms have condescended from a common ancestor that appeared on earth about 3 million years ago • Over time, populations divide into species – which share common ancestral population • Origin of Adaptations – Natural Selection o Charles Darwin proposed natural selection as mechanism for the process of adaptation in a population – intended it to be compared with artificial selection (selective breeding) o This causes changes in the traits of organisms o Natural Selection – process whereby organisms that are better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring than others o Gradual and non-random process by which traits become more or less common o Results from variation among individuals within a population in number of surviving offspring o If traits that confer high fitness are heritable then the frequency of these traits will increase over successive generations – Process is called evolution o Adaptation  traits that confer an advantage to those individuals who leave more offspring – any fitness enhancing trait that has spread through the population by natural selection o Therefore some individuals possess heritable traits that help them to survive and reproduce more successfully – leave more offspring than others ▪ This means they have a higher fitness • In order for a trait to be considered an adaptation, 3 criteria must be met; • Variation In order for a trait to be considered an adaptation, 3 criteria must be met; o Variation – variation of size, hair color, face markings, voice, etc. ▪ Some traits don’t have variation – number of eyes in vertebrates o Inheritance – heritability, trait must be able to be passed on to offspring o Traits lead to difference among ind
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